Chapter 2. Matters to Be Considered in Granting Custody - California Family Code Section 3048
Legal Research Home >
California Laws > Family Code > Chapter 2. Matters to Be Considered in Granting Custody - California Family Code Section 3048
3048. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any
proceeding to determine child custody or visitation with a child,
every custody or visitation order shall contain all of the following:
(1) The basis for the court's exercise of jurisdiction.
(2) The manner in which notice and opportunity to be heard were
(3) A clear description of the custody and visitation rights of
(4) A provision stating that a violation of the order may subject
the party in violation to civil or criminal penalties, or both.
(5) Identification of the country of habitual residence of the
child or children.
(b) (1) In cases in which the court becomes aware of facts which
may indicate that there is a risk of abduction of a child, the court
shall, either on its own motion or at the request of a party,
determine whether measures are needed to prevent the abduction of the
child by one parent. To make that determination, the court shall
consider the risk of abduction of the child, obstacles to location,
recovery, and return if the child is abducted, and potential harm to
the child if he or she is abducted. To determine whether there is a
risk of abduction, the court shall consider the following factors:
(A) Whether a party has previously taken, enticed away, kept,
withheld, or concealed a child in violation of the right of custody
or of visitation of a person.
(B) Whether a party has previously threatened to take, entice
away, keep, withhold, or conceal a child in violation of the right of
custody or of visitation of a person.
(C) Whether a party lacks strong ties to this state.
(D) Whether a party has strong familial, emotional, or cultural
ties to another state or country, including foreign citizenship. This
factor shall be considered only if evidence exists in support of
another factor specified in this section.
(E) Whether a party has no financial reason to stay in this state,
including whether the party is unemployed, is able to work anywhere,
or is financially independent.
(F) Whether a party has engaged in planning activities that would
facilitate the removal of a child from the state, including quitting
a job, selling his or her primary residence, terminating a lease,
closing a bank account, liquidating other assets, hiding or
destroying documents, applying for a passport, applying to obtain a
birth certificate or school or medical records, or purchasing
airplane or other travel tickets, with consideration given to whether
a party is carrying out a safety plan to flee from domestic
(G) Whether a party has a history of a lack of parental
cooperation or child abuse, or there is substantiated evidence that a
party has perpetrated domestic violence.
(H) Whether a party has a criminal record.
(2) If the court makes a finding that there is a need for
preventative measures after considering the factors listed in
paragraph (1), the court shall consider taking one or more of the
following measures to prevent the abduction of the child:
(A) Ordering supervised visitation.
(B) Requiring a parent to post a bond in an amount sufficient to
serve as a financial deterrent to abduction, the proceeds of which
may be used to offset the cost of recovery of the child in the event
there is an abduction.
(C) Restricting the right of the custodial or noncustodial parent
to remove the child from the county, the state, or the country.
(D) Restricting the right of the custodial parent to relocate with
the child, unless the custodial parent provides advance notice to,
and obtains the written agreement of, the noncustodial parent, or
obtains the approval of the court, before relocating with the child.
(E) Requiring the surrender of passports and other travel
(F) Prohibiting a parent from applying for a new or replacement
passport for the child.
(G) Requiring a parent to notify a relevant foreign consulate or
embassy of passport restrictions and to provide the court with proof
of that notification.
(H) Requiring a party to register a California order in another
state as a prerequisite to allowing a child to travel to that state
for visits, or to obtain an order from another country containing
terms identical to the custody and visitation order issued in the
United States (recognizing that these orders may be modified or
enforced pursuant to the laws of the other country), as a
prerequisite to allowing a child to travel to that county for visits.
(I) Obtaining assurances that a party will return from foreign
visits by requiring the traveling parent to provide the court or the
other parent or guardian with any of the following:
(i) The travel itinerary of the child.
(ii) Copies of round trip airline tickets.
(iii) A list of addresses and telephone numbers where the child
can be reached at all times.
(iv) An open airline ticket for the left-behind parent in case the
child is not returned.
(J) Including provisions in the custody order to facilitate use of
the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (Part 3
(commencing with Section 3400)) and the Hague Convention on the Civil
Aspects of International Child Abduction (implemented pursuant to 42
U.S.C. Sec. 11601 et seq.), such as identifying California as the
home state of the child or otherwise defining the basis for the
California court's exercise of jurisdiction under Part 3 (commencing
with Section 3400), identifying the United States as the country of
habitual residence of the child pursuant to the Hague Convention,
defining custody rights pursuant to the Hague Convention, obtaining
the express agreement of the parents that the United States is the
country of habitual residence of the child, or that California or the
United States is the most appropriate forum for addressing custody
and visitation orders.
(K) Authorizing the assistance of law enforcement.
(3) If the court imposes any or all of the conditions listed in
paragraph (2), those conditions shall be specifically noted on the
minute order of the court proceedings.
(4) If the court determines there is a risk of abduction that is
sufficient to warrant the application of one or more of the
prevention measures authorized by this section, the court shall
inform the parties of the telephone number and address of the Child
Abduction Unit in the office of the district attorney in the county
where the custody or visitation order is being entered.
(c) The Judicial Council shall make the changes to its child
custody order forms that are necessary for the implementation of
subdivision (b). This subdivision shall become operative on July 1,
(d) Nothing in this section affects the applicability of Section
278.7 of the Penal Code.
Last modified: February 16, 2015