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Texas Penal Code - Section 32.21. Forgery

Legal Research Home > Texas Laws > Penal Code > Texas Penal Code - Section 32.21. Forgery

§ 32.21. FORGERY. (a) For purposes of this section: (1) "Forge" means: (A) to alter, make, complete, execute, or authenticate any writing so that it purports: (i) to be the act of another who did not authorize that act; (ii) to have been executed at a time or place or in a numbered sequence other than was in fact the case; or (iii) to be a copy of an original when no such original existed; (B) to issue, transfer, register the transfer of, pass, publish, or otherwise utter a writing that is forged within the meaning of Paragraph (A); or (C) to possess a writing that is forged within the meaning of Paragraph (A) with intent to utter it in a manner specified in Paragraph (B). (2) "Writing" includes: (A) printing or any other method of recording information; (B) money, coins, tokens, stamps, seals, credit cards, badges, and trademarks; and (C) symbols of value, right, privilege, or identification. (b) A person commits an offense if he forges a writing with intent to defraud or harm another. (c) Except as provided in Subsections (d) and (e) an offense under this section is a Class A misdemeanor. (d) An offense under this section is a state jail felony if the writing is or purports to be a will, codicil, deed, deed of trust, mortgage, security instrument, security agreement, credit card, check, authorization to debit an account at a financial institution, or similar sight order for payment of money, contract, release, or other commercial instrument. (e) An offense under this section is a felony of the third degree if the writing is or purports to be: (1) part of an issue of money, securities, postage or revenue stamps; (2) a government record listed in Section 37.01(2)(C); or (3) other instruments issued by a state or national government or by a subdivision of either, or part of an issue of stock, bonds, or other instruments representing interests in or claims against another person. (f) A person is presumed to intend to defraud or harm another if the person acts with respect to two or more writings of the same type and if each writing is a government record listed in Section 37.01(2)(C). Acts 1973, 63rd Leg., p. 883, ch. 399, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1974. Amended by Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., ch. 113, § 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1991; Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 900, § 1.01, eff. Sept. 1, 1994; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 189, § 1, eff. May 21, 1997; Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 1104, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 2003.

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Last modified: August 11, 2007