45 USC 351 - Definitions
Sec. 351. DefinitionsFor the purposes of this chapter, except when used in amending the provisions of other Acts—
(a) The term "employer" means any carrier (as defined in subsection (b) of this section), and any company which is directly or indirectly owned or controlled by one or more such carriers or under common control therewith, and which operates any equipment or facility or performs any service (except trucking service, casual service, and the casual operation of equipment or facilities) in connection with the transportation of passengers or property by railroad, or the receipt, delivery, elevation, transfer in transit, refrigeration or icing, storage, or handling of property transported by railroad, and any receiver, trustee, or other individual or body, judicial or otherwise, when in the possession of the property or operating all or any part of the business of any such employer: Provided, however, That the term "employer" shall not include any street, interurban, or suburban electric railway, unless such railway is operating as a part of a general steam-railroad system of transportation, but shall not exclude any part of the general steam-railroad system of transportation now or hereafter operated by any other motive power. The Surface Transportation Board is hereby authorized and directed upon request of the Railroad Retirement Board, or upon complaint of any party interested, to determine after hearing whether any line operated by electric power falls within the terms of this proviso. The term "employer" shall also include railroad associations, traffic associations, tariff bureaus, demurrage bureaus, weighing and inspection bureaus, collection agencies, and other associations, bureaus, agencies, or organizations controlled and maintained wholly or principally by two or more employers as hereinbefore defined and engaged in the performance of services in connection with or incidental to railroad transportation; and railway labor organizations, national in scope, which have been or may be organized in accordance with the provisions of the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.], and their State and National legislative committees and their general committees and their insurance departments and their local lodges and divisions, established pursuant to the constitution and bylaws of such organizations. The term "employer" shall not include any company by reason of its being engaged in the mining of coal, the supplying of coal to an employer where delivery is not beyond the mine tipple, and the operation of equipment or facilities therefor, or in any of such activities.
(b) The term "carrier" means a railroad subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board under part A of subtitle IV of title 49.
(c) The term "company" includes corporations, associations, and joint-stock companies.
(d) The term "employee" (except when used in phrases establishing a different meaning) means any individual who is or has been
(i) in the service of one or more employers for compensation, or
(ii) an employee representative. The term "employee" shall include an employee of a local lodge or division defined as an employer in subsection (a) of this section only if he was in the service of a carrier on or after August 29, 1935. The term "employee" includes an officer of an employer.
The term "employee" shall not include any individual while such individual is engaged in the physical operations consisting of the mining of coal, the preparation of coal, the handling (other than movement by rail with standard railroad locomotives) of coal not beyond the mine tipple, or the loading of coal at the tipple.
(e) An individual is in the service of an employer whether his service is rendered within or without the United States if (i) he is subject to the continuing authority of the employer to supervise and direct the manner of rendition of his service, or he is rendering professional or technical services and is integrated into the staff of the employer, or he is rendering, on the property used in the employer’s operations, other personal services the rendition of which is integrated into the employer’s operations, and (ii) he renders such service for compensation: Provided, however, That an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of an employer, other than a local lodge or division or a general committee of a railway-labor-organization employer, not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States only when he is rendering service to it in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a local lodge or division only if (1) all, or substantially all, the individuals constituting its membership are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or (2) the headquarters of such local lodge or division is located in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a general committee only if (1) he is representing a local lodge or division described in clauses (1) or (2) immediately above; or (2) all, or substantially all, the individuals represented by it are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or (3) he acts in the capacity of a general chairman or an assistant general chairman of a general committee which represents individuals rendering service in the United States to an employer, but in such case if his office or headquarters is not located in the United States and the individuals represented by such general committee are employees of an employer not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States, only such proportion of the remuneration for such service shall be regarded as compensation as the proportion which the mileage in the United States under the jurisdiction of such general committee bears to the total mileage under its jurisdiction, unless such mileage formula is inapplicable, in which case the Board may prescribe such other formula as it finds to be equitable, and if the application of such mileage formula, or such other formula as the Board may prescribe, would result in the compensation of the individual being less than 10 per centum of his remuneration for such service no part of such remuneration shall be regarded as compensation: Provided further, That an individual not a citizen or resident of the United States shall not be deemed to be in the service of an employer when rendering service outside the United States to an employer who is required under the laws applicable in the place where the service is rendered to employ therein, in whole or in part, citizens or residents thereof.
(f) The term "employee representative" means any officer or official representative of a railway labor organization other than a labor organization included in the term employer as defined in subsection (a) of this section who before or after August 29, 1935, was in the service of an employer as defined in said subsection and who is duly authorized and designated to represent employees in accordance with the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.], and any individual who is regularly assigned to or regularly employed by such officer or official representative in connection with the duties of his office.
(g) The term "employment" means service performed as an employee. For the purposes of determining eligibility for and the amount of benefits and the amount of contributions due pursuant to this chapter, employment after June 30, 1940, in the service of a local lodge or division of a railway-labor-organization employer or as an employee representative shall be disregarded. For purposes of determining eligibility for and the amount of benefits and the amount of contributions due pursuant to this chapter, employment as a delegate to a national or international convention of a railway labor organization defined as an "employer", in subsection (a) of this section, shall be disregarded if the individual having such employment has not previously rendered service, other than as such a delegate, which may be included in his "years of service" for purposes of the Railroad Retirement Act [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.].
(h) The term "registration period" means, with respect to any employee, the period which begins with the first day for which such employee registers at an employment office in accordance with such regulations as the Board may prescribe, and ends with whichever is the earlier of
(i) the thirteenth day thereafter, or
(ii) the day immediately preceding the day for which he next registers at a different employment office; and thereafter each period which begins with the first day for which he next registers at an employment office after the end of his last preceding registration period which began with a day for which he registered at an employment office and ends with whichever is the earlier of
(i) the thirteenth day thereafter, or
(ii) the day immediately preceding the day for which he next registers at a different employment office.
The term "registration period" means also, with respect to any employee, the period which begins with the first day with respect to which a statement of sickness for a "period of continuing sickness" (as defined in section 352 (a) of this title) is filed in his behalf in accordance with such regulations as the Board may prescribe, or the first such day after the end of a registration period which will have begun with a day with respect to which a statement of sickness for a "period of continuing sickness" (as defined in section 352 (a) of this title) was filed in his behalf, and ends with whichever is the earlier of
(i) the thirteenth day thereafter, or
(ii) the day immediately preceding the day with respect to which a statement of sickness for a new "period of continuing sickness" (as defined in section 352 (a) of this title) is filed in his behalf.
The term "compensation" means any form of money remuneration, including pay for time lost but excluding tips, paid for services rendered as an employee to one or more employers, or as an employee representative, except that in computing the compensation paid to any employee, no part of any month’s compensation in excess of the monthly compensation base (as defined in subdivision (2)) for any month shall be recognized. Solely for the purpose of determining the compensation received by an employee in a base year, the term "compensation" shall include any separation allowance or subsistence allowance paid under any benefit schedule provided under section 701  of title VII of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 [45 U.S.C. 797] and any termination allowance paid under section 702 of that Act [45 U.S.C. 797a], but does not include any other benefits payable under that title [45 U.S.C. 797 et seq.]. The total amount of any subsistence allowance payable under a benefit schedule provided pursuant to section 701  of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 shall be considered as being compensation in the month in which the employee first timely filed a claim for such an allowance. Such term does not include remuneration for service which is performed by a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F) or (J) of section 1101 (a)(15) of title 8 and which is performed to carry out the purpose specified in subparagraph (F) or (J) as the case may be. A payment made by an employer to an individual through the employer’s pay roll shall be presumed, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, to be compensation for service rendered by such individual as an employee of the employer in the period with respect to which the payment is made. An employee shall be deemed to be paid, "for time lost" the amount he is paid by an employer with respect to an identifiable period of absence from the active service of the employer, including absence on account of personal injury, and the amount he is paid by the employer for loss of earnings resulting from his displacement to a less remunerative position or occupation. If a payment is made by an employer with respect to a personal injury and includes pay for time lost, the total payment shall be deemed to be paid for time lost unless, at the time of payment, a part of such payment is specifically apportioned to factors other than time lost, in which event only such part of the payment as is not so apportioned shall be deemed to be paid for time lost. Compensation earned in any calendar month before 1947 shall be deemed paid in such month regardless of whether or when payment will have been in fact made, and compensation earned in any calendar year after 1946 but paid after the end of such calendar year shall be deemed to be compensation paid in the calendar year in which it will have been earned if it is so reported by the employer before February 1 of the next succeeding calendar year or, if the employee establishes, subject to the provisions of section 356 of this title, the period during which such compensation will have been earned.
Monthly Compensation Base.—
For purposes of subdivision (1), the term "monthly compensation base" means the amount—
(i) of $400 for calendar months before January 1, 1984;
(ii) of $600 for calendar months after December 31, 1983 and before January 1, 1989; and
(iii) computed under subparagraph (B) for months after December 31, 1988.
The amount of the monthly compensation base for each calendar year beginning after December 31, 1988, is the greater of—
(I) $600; or
(II) the amount, as rounded under clause (iii) if applicable, computed under the formula:
Meaning of symbols.—
For the purposes of the formula in clause (i)—
(I) "B" is the dollar amount of the monthly compensation base; and
(II) "A" is the amount of the applicable base with respect to tier 1 taxes, for the calendar year for which the monthly compensation base is being computed, as determined under section 3231 (e)(2) of title 26.
If the monthly compensation base computed under this formula is not a multiple of $5, it shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $5, with such rounding being upward in the event the amount computed is equidistant between two multiples of $5.
(j) The term "remuneration" means pay for services for hire, including pay for time lost, and tips, but pay for time lost shall be deemed earned on the day on which such time is lost. The term "remuneration" includes also earned income other than for services for hire if the accrual thereof in whole or in part is ascertainable with respect to a particular day or particular days. The term "remuneration" does not include any money payments received pursuant to any nongovernmental plan for unemployment insurance, maternity insurance, or sickness insurance.
(k) Subject to the provisions of section 354 of this title
(1) a day of unemployment, with respect to any employee, means a calendar day on which he is able to work and is available for work and with respect to which
(i) no remuneration is payable or accrues to him, and
(ii) he has, in accordance with such regulations as the Board may prescribe, registered at an employment office; and
(2) a "day of sickness", with respect to any employee, means a calendar day on which because of any physical, mental, psychological, or nervous injury, illness, sickness, or disease he is not able to work, or, with respect to a female employee, a calendar day on which, because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or the birth of a child,
(i) she is unable to work or
(ii) working would be injurious to her health, and with respect to which
(i) no remuneration is payable or accrues to him, and
(ii) in accordance with such regulations as the Board may prescribe, a statement of sickness is filed within such reasonable period, not in excess of ten days, as the Board may prescribe: Provided, however, That "subsidiary remuneration", as hereinafter defined in this subsection, shall not be considered remuneration for the purpose of this subsection except with respect to an employee whose base-year compensation, exclusive of earnings from the position or occupation in which he earned such subsidiary remuneration, is less than an amount that is equal to 2.5 times the monthly compensation base for months in such base year as computed under subsection (i) of this section: Provided further, That remuneration for a working day which includes a part of each of two consecutive calendar days shall be deemed to have been earned on the first of such two days, and any individual who takes work for such working day shall not by reason thereof be deemed not available for work on the second of such calendar days: Provided further, That any calendar day on which no remuneration is payable to or accrues to an employee solely because of the application to him of mileage or work restrictions agreed upon in schedule agreements between employers and employees or solely because he is standing by for or laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty shall not be considered either a day of unemployment or a day of sickness.
For the purpose of this subsection, the term "subsidiary remuneration" means, with respect to any employee, remuneration not in excess of an average of $15 a day for the period with respect to which such remuneration is payable or accrues, if the work from which the remuneration is derived
(i) requires substantially less than full time as determined by generally prevailing standards, and
(ii) is susceptible of performance at such times and under such circumstances as not to be inconsistent with the holding of normal full-time employment in another occupation.
(1) The term "benefits" (except in phrases clearly designating other payments) means the money payments payable to an employee as provided in this chapter, with respect to his unemployment or sickness.
(2) The term "statement of sickness" means a statement with respect to days of sickness of an employee, executed in such manner and form by an individual duly authorized pursuant to section 362 (i) of this title to execute such statements, and filed as the Board may prescribe by regulations.
(m) The term "benefit year" means the twelve-month period beginning July 1 of any year and ending June 30 of the next year, except that a registration period beginning in June and ending in July shall be deemed to be in the benefit year ending in such month of June.
(n) The term "base year" means the completed calendar year immediately preceding the beginning of the benefit year.
(o) The term "employment office" means a free employment office operated by the Board, or designated as such by the Board pursuant to section 362 (i) of this title.
(p) The term "account" means the railroad unemployment insurance account established pursuant to section 360 of this title in the unemployment trust fund.
(q) The term "fund" means the railroad unemployment insurance administration fund, established pursuant to section 361 of this title in the unemployment trust fund.
(r) The term "Board" means the Railroad Retirement Board.
(s) The term "United States", when used in a geographical sense, means the States and the District of Columbia.
(t) The term "State" means any of the States or the District of Columbia.
(u) Any reference in this chapter to any other Act of Congress, including such reference in amendments to other Acts, includes a reference to such other Act as amended from time to time.
 See References in Text note below.
Last modified: July 21, 2011