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California Government Code Section 12926

Legal Research Home > California Laws > Government Code > California Government Code Section 12926

12926.  As used in this part in connection with unlawful practices,
unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context:
   (a) "Affirmative relief" or "prospective relief" includes the
authority to order reinstatement of an employee, awards of backpay,
reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses, hiring, transfers,
reassignments, grants of tenure, promotions, cease and desist orders,
posting of notices, training of personnel, testing, expunging of
records, reporting of records, and any other similar relief that is
intended to correct unlawful practices under this part.
   (b) "Age" refers to the chronological age of any individual who
has reached his or her 40th birthday.
   (c) "Employee" does not include any individual employed by his or
her parents, spouse, or child, or any individual employed under a
special license in a nonprofit sheltered workshop or rehabilitation
facility.
   (d) "Employer" includes any person regularly employing five or
more persons, or any person acting as an agent of an employer,
directly or indirectly, the state or any political or civil
subdivision of the state, and cities, except as follows:
   "Employer" does not include a religious association or corporation
not organized for private profit.
   (e) "Employment agency" includes any person undertaking for
compensation to procure employees or opportunities to work.
   (f) "Essential functions" means the fundamental job duties of the
employment position the individual with a disability holds or
desires. "Essential functions" does not include the marginal
functions of the position.
   (1) A job function may be considered essential for any of several
reasons, including, but not limited to, any one or more of the
following:
   (A) The function may be essential because the reason the position
exists is to perform that function.
   (B) The function may be essential because of the limited number of
employees available among whom the performance of that job function
can be distributed.
   (C) The function may be highly specialized, so that the incumbent
in the position is hired for his or her expertise or ability to
perform the particular function.
   (2) Evidence of whether a particular function is essential
includes, but is not limited to, the following:
   (A) The employer's judgment as to which functions are essential.
   (B) Written job descriptions prepared before advertising or
interviewing applicants for the job.
   (C) The amount of time spent on the job performing the function.
   (D) The consequences of not requiring the incumbent to perform the
function.
   (E) The terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
   (F) The work experiences of past incumbents in the job.
   (G) The current work experience of incumbents in similar jobs.
   (g) (1) "Genetic information" means, with respect to any
individual, information about any of the following:
   (A) The individual's genetic tests.
   (B) The genetic tests of family members of the individual.
   (C) The manifestation of a disease or disorder in family members
of the individual.
   (2) "Genetic information" includes any request for, or receipt of,
genetic services, or participation in clinical research that
includes genetic services, by an individual or any family member of
the individual.
   (3) "Genetic information" does not include information about the
sex or age of any individual.
   (h) "Labor organization" includes any organization that exists and
is constituted for the purpose, in whole or in part, of collective
bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning grievances, terms
or conditions of employment, or of other mutual aid or protection.
   (i) "Medical condition" means either of the following:
   (1) Any health impairment related to or associated with a
diagnosis of cancer or a record or history of cancer.
   (2) Genetic characteristics. For purposes of this section,
"genetic characteristics" means either of the following:
   (A) Any scientifically or medically identifiable gene or
chromosome, or combination or alteration thereof, that is known to be
a cause of a disease or disorder in a person or his or her
offspring, or that is determined to be associated with a
statistically increased risk of development of a disease or disorder,
and that is presently not associated with any symptoms of any
disease or disorder.
   (B) Inherited characteristics that may derive from the individual
or family member, that are known to be a cause of a disease or
disorder in a person or his or her offspring, or that are determined
to be associated with a statistically increased risk of development
of a disease or disorder, and that are presently not associated with
any symptoms of any disease or disorder.
   (j) "Mental disability" includes, but is not limited to, all of
the following:
   (1) Having any mental or psychological disorder or condition, such
as intellectual disability, organic brain syndrome, emotional or
mental illness, or specific learning disabilities, that limits a
major life activity. For purposes of this section:
   (A) "Limits" shall be determined without regard to mitigating
measures, such as medications, assistive devices, or reasonable
accommodations, unless the mitigating measure itself limits a major
life activity.
   (B) A mental or psychological disorder or condition limits a major
life activity if it makes the achievement of the major life activity
difficult.
   (C) "Major life activities" shall be broadly construed and shall
include physical, mental, and social activities and working.
   (2) Any other mental or psychological disorder or condition not
described in paragraph (1) that requires special education or related
services.
   (3) Having a record or history of a mental or psychological
disorder or condition described in paragraph (1) or (2), which is
known to the employer or other entity covered by this part.
   (4) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, any mental condition
that makes achievement of a major life activity difficult.
   (5) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, a mental or
psychological disorder or condition that has no present disabling
effect, but that may become a mental disability as described in
paragraph (1) or (2).
   "Mental disability" does not include sexual behavior disorders,
compulsive gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, or psychoactive
substance use disorders resulting from the current unlawful use of
controlled substances or other drugs.
   (k) "Military and veteran status" means a member or veteran of the
United States Armed Forces, United States Armed Forces Reserve, the
United States National Guard, and the California National Guard.
   (l) "On the bases enumerated in this part" means or refers to
discrimination on the basis of one or more of the following: race,
religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry, physical
disability, mental disability, medical condition, genetic
information, marital status, sex, age, sexual orientation, or
military and veteran status.
   (m) "Physical disability" includes, but is not limited to, all of
the following:
   (1) Having any physiological disease, disorder, condition,
cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss that does both of the
following:
   (A) Affects one or more of the following body systems:
neurological, immunological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs,
respiratory, including speech organs, cardiovascular, reproductive,
digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and endocrine.
   (B) Limits a major life activity. For purposes of this section:
   (i) "Limits" shall be determined without regard to mitigating
measures such as medications, assistive devices, prosthetics, or
reasonable accommodations, unless the mitigating measure itself
limits a major life activity.
   (ii) A physiological disease, disorder, condition, cosmetic
disfigurement, or anatomical loss limits a major life activity if it
makes the achievement of the major life activity difficult.
   (iii) "Major life activities" shall be broadly construed and
includes physical, mental, and social activities and working.
   (2) Any other health impairment not described in paragraph (1)
that requires special education or related services.
   (3) Having a record or history of a disease, disorder, condition,
cosmetic disfigurement, anatomical loss, or health impairment
described in paragraph (1) or (2), which is known to the employer or
other entity covered by this part.
   (4) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, any physical condition
that makes achievement of a major life activity difficult.
   (5) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, a disease, disorder,
condition, cosmetic disfigurement, anatomical loss, or health
impairment that has no present disabling effect but may become a
physical disability as described in paragraph (1) or (2).
   (6) "Physical disability" does not include sexual behavior
disorders, compulsive gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, or
psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from the current
unlawful use of controlled substances or other drugs.
   (n) Notwithstanding subdivisions (j) and (m), if the definition of
"disability" used in the federal Americans with Disabilities Act of
1990 (Public Law 101-336) would result in broader protection of the
civil rights of individuals with a mental disability or physical
disability, as defined in subdivision (j) or (m), or would include
any medical condition not included within those definitions, then
that broader protection or coverage shall be deemed incorporated by
reference into, and shall prevail over conflicting provisions of, the
definitions in subdivisions (j) and (m).
   (o) "Race, religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry,
physical disability, mental disability, medical condition, genetic
information, marital status, sex, age, sexual orientation, or
military and veteran status" includes a perception that the person
has any of those characteristics or that the person is associated
with a person who has, or is perceived to have, any of those
characteristics.
   (p) "Reasonable accommodation" may include either of the
following:
   (1) Making existing facilities used by employees readily
accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities.
   (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules,
reassignment to a vacant position, acquisition or modification of
equipment or devices, adjustment or modifications of examinations,
training materials or policies, the provision of qualified readers or
interpreters, and other similar accommodations for individuals with
disabilities.
   (q) "Religious creed," "religion," "religious observance,"
"religious belief," and "creed" include all aspects of religious
belief, observance, and practice, including religious dress and
grooming practices. "Religious dress practice" shall be construed
broadly to include the wearing or carrying of religious clothing,
head or face coverings, jewelry, artifacts, and any other item that
is part of the observance by an individual of his or her religious
creed. "Religious grooming practice" shall be construed broadly to
include all forms of head, facial, and body hair that are part of the
observance by an individual of his or her religious creed.
   (r) (1) "Sex" includes, but is not limited to, the following:
   (A) Pregnancy or medical conditions related to pregnancy.
   (B) Childbirth or medical conditions related to childbirth.
   (C) Breastfeeding or medical conditions related to breastfeeding.
   (2) "Sex" also includes, but is not limited to, a person's gender.
"Gender" means sex, and includes a person's gender identity and
gender expression. "Gender expression" means a person's
gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically
associated with the person's assigned sex at birth.
   (s) "Sexual orientation" means heterosexuality, homosexuality, and
bisexuality.
   (t) "Supervisor" means any individual having the authority, in the
interest of the employer, to hire, transfer, suspend, lay off,
recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward, or discipline other
employees, or the responsibility to direct them, or to adjust their
grievances, or effectively to recommend that action, if, in
connection with the foregoing, the exercise of that authority is not
of a merely routine or clerical nature, but requires the use of
independent judgment.
   (u) "Undue hardship" means an action requiring significant
difficulty or expense, when considered in light of the following
factors:
   (1) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed.
   (2) The overall financial resources of the facilities involved in
the provision of the reasonable accommodations, the number of persons
employed at the facility, and the effect on expenses and resources
or the impact otherwise of these accommodations upon the operation of
the facility.
   (3) The overall financial resources of the covered entity, the
overall size of the business of a covered entity with respect to the
number of employees, and the number, type, and location of its
facilities.
   (4) The type of operations, including the composition, structure,
and functions of the workforce of the entity.
   (5) The geographic separateness or administrative or fiscal
relationship of the facility or facilities.

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Last modified: March 17, 2014