Article 22. Wards and Dependent Children--records - California Welfare and Institutions Code Section 827
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California Laws > Welfare and Institutions Code > Article 22. Wards and Dependent Children--records - California Welfare and Institutions Code Section 827
827. (a) (1) Except as provided in Section 828, a case file may be
inspected only by the following:
(A) Court personnel.
(B) The district attorney, a city attorney, or city prosecutor
authorized to prosecute criminal or juvenile cases under state law.
(C) The minor who is the subject of the proceeding.
(D) The minor's parents or guardian.
(E) The attorneys for the parties, judges, referees, other hearing
officers, probation officers, and law enforcement officers who are
actively participating in criminal or juvenile proceedings involving
(F) The county counsel, city attorney, or any other attorney
representing the petitioning agency in a dependency action.
(G) The superintendent or designee of the school district where
the minor is enrolled or attending school.
(H) Members of the child protective agencies as defined in Section
11165.9 of the Penal Code.
(I) The State Department of Social Services, to carry out its
duties pursuant to Division 9 (commencing with Section 10000), and
Part 5 (commencing with Section 7900) of Division 12, of the Family
Code to oversee and monitor county child welfare agencies, children
in foster care or receiving foster care assistance, and out-of-state
placements, Section 10850.4, and paragraph (2).
(J) Authorized legal staff or special investigators who are peace
officers who are employed by, or who are authorized representatives
of, the State Department of Social Services, as necessary to the
performance of their duties to inspect, license, and investigate
community care facilities, and to ensure that the standards of care
and services provided in those facilities are adequate and
appropriate and to ascertain compliance with the rules and
regulations to which the facilities are subject. The confidential
information shall remain confidential except for purposes of
inspection, licensing, or investigation pursuant to Chapter 3
(commencing with Section 1500) and Chapter 3.4 (commencing with
Section 1596.70) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code, or a
criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding in relation thereto.
The confidential information may be used by the State Department of
Social Services in a criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding.
The confidential information shall be available only to the judge or
hearing officer and to the parties to the case. Names that are
confidential shall be listed in attachments separate to the general
pleadings. The confidential information shall be sealed after the
conclusion of the criminal, civil, or administrative hearings, and
may not subsequently be released except in accordance with this
subdivision. If the confidential information does not result in a
criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding, it shall be sealed
after the State Department of Social Services decides that no further
action will be taken in the matter of suspected licensing
violations. Except as otherwise provided in this subdivision,
confidential information in the possession of the State Department of
Social Services may not contain the name of the minor.
(K) Members of children's multidisciplinary teams, persons, or
agencies providing treatment or supervision of the minor.
(L) A judge, commissioner, or other hearing officer assigned to a
family law case with issues concerning custody or visitation, or
both, involving the minor, and the following persons, if actively
participating in the family law case: a family court mediator
assigned to a case involving the minor pursuant to Article 1
(commencing with Section 3160) of Chapter 11 of Part 2 of Division 8
of the Family Code, a court-appointed evaluator or a person
conducting a court-connected child custody evaluation, investigation,
or assessment pursuant to Section 3111 or 3118 of the Family Code,
and counsel appointed for the minor in the family law case pursuant
to Section 3150 of the Family Code. Prior to allowing counsel
appointed for the minor in the family law case to inspect the file,
the court clerk may require counsel to provide a certified copy of
the court order appointing him or her as the minor's counsel.
(M) A court-appointed investigator who is actively participating
in a guardianship case involving a minor pursuant to Part 2
(commencing with Section 1500) of Division 4 of the Probate Code and
acting within the scope of his or her duties in that case.
(N) A local child support agency for the purpose of establishing
paternity and establishing and enforcing child support orders.
(O) Juvenile justice commissions as established under Section 225.
The confidentiality provisions of Section 10850 shall apply to a
juvenile justice commission and its members.
(P) Any other person who may be designated by court order of the
judge of the juvenile court upon filing a petition.
(2) (A) Notwithstanding any other law and subject to subparagraph
(A) of paragraph (3), juvenile case files, except those relating to
matters within the jurisdiction of the court pursuant to Section 601
or 602, that pertain to a deceased child who was within the
jurisdiction of the juvenile court pursuant to Section 300, shall be
released to the public pursuant to an order by the juvenile court
after a petition has been filed and interested parties have been
afforded an opportunity to file an objection. Any information
relating to another child or which could identify another child,
except for information about the deceased, shall be redacted from the
juvenile case file prior to release, unless a specific order is made
by the juvenile court to the contrary. Except as provided in this
paragraph, the presiding judge of the juvenile court may issue an
order prohibiting or limiting access to the juvenile case file, or
any portion thereof, of a deceased child only upon a showing by a
preponderance of evidence that release of the juvenile case file or
any portion thereof is detrimental to the safety, protection, or
physical or emotional well-being of another child who is directly or
indirectly connected to the juvenile case that is the subject of the
(B) This paragraph represents a presumption in favor of the
release of documents when a child is deceased unless the statutory
reasons for confidentiality are shown to exist.
(C) If a child whose records are sought has died, and documents
are sought pursuant to this paragraph, no weighing or balancing of
the interests of those other than a child is permitted.
(D) A petition filed under this paragraph shall be served on
interested parties by the petitioner, if the petitioner is in
possession of their identity and address, and on the custodian of
records. Upon receiving a petition, the custodian of records shall
serve a copy of the request upon all interested parties that have not
been served by the petitioner or on the interested parties served by
the petitioner if the custodian of records possesses information,
such as a more recent address, indicating that the service by the
petitioner may have been ineffective.
(E) The custodian of records shall serve the petition within 10
calendar days of receipt. If any interested party, including the
custodian of records, objects to the petition, the party shall file
and serve the objection on the petitioning party no later than 15
calendar days of service of the petition.
(F) The petitioning party shall have 10 calendar days to file any
reply. The juvenile court shall set the matter for hearing no more
than 60 calendar days from the date the petition is served on the
custodian of records. The court shall render its decision within 30
days of the hearing. The matter shall be decided solely upon the
basis of the petition and supporting exhibits and declarations, if
any, the objection and any supporting exhibits or declarations, if
any, and the reply and any supporting declarations or exhibits
thereto, and argument at hearing. The court may solely upon its own
motion order the appearance of witnesses. If no objection is filed to
the petition, the court shall review the petition and issue its
decision within 10 calendar days of the final day for filing the
objection. Any order of the court shall be immediately reviewable by
petition to the appellate court for the issuance of an extraordinary
(3) Access to juvenile case files pertaining to matters within the
jurisdiction of the juvenile court pursuant to Section 300 shall be
limited as follows:
(A) If a juvenile case file, or any portion thereof, is privileged
or confidential pursuant to any other state law or federal law or
regulation, the requirements of that state law or federal law or
regulation prohibiting or limiting release of the juvenile case file
or any portions thereof shall prevail. Unless a person is listed in
subparagraphs (A) to (O), inclusive, of paragraph (1) and is entitled
to access under the other state law or federal law or regulation
without a court order, all those seeking access, pursuant to other
authorization, to portions of, or information relating to the
contents of, juvenile case files protected under another state law or
federal law or regulation, shall petition the juvenile court. The
juvenile court may only release the portion of, or information
relating to the contents of, juvenile case files protected by another
state law or federal law or regulation if disclosure is not
detrimental to the safety, protection, or physical or emotional
well-being of a child who is directly or indirectly connected to the
juvenile case that is the subject of the petition. This paragraph
shall not be construed to limit the ability of the juvenile court to
carry out its duties in conducting juvenile court proceedings.
(B) Prior to the release of the juvenile case file or any portion
thereof, the court shall afford due process, including a notice of
and an opportunity to file an objection to the release of the record
or report to all interested parties.
(4) A juvenile case file, any portion thereof, and information
relating to the content of the juvenile case file, may not be
disseminated by the receiving agencies to any persons or agencies,
other than those persons or agencies authorized to receive documents
pursuant to this section. Further, a juvenile case file, any portion
thereof, and information relating to the content of the juvenile case
file, may not be made as an attachment to any other documents
without the prior approval of the presiding judge of the juvenile
court, unless it is used in connection with and in the course of a
criminal investigation or a proceeding brought to declare a person a
dependent child or ward of the juvenile court.
(5) Individuals listed in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (E),
(F), (H), and (I) of paragraph (1) may also receive copies of the
case file. In these circumstances, the requirements of paragraph (4)
shall continue to apply to the information received.
(b) (1) While the Legislature reaffirms its belief that juvenile
court records, in general, should be confidential, it is the intent
of the Legislature in enacting this subdivision to provide for a
limited exception to juvenile court record confidentiality to promote
more effective communication among juvenile courts, family courts,
law enforcement agencies, and schools to ensure the rehabilitation of
juvenile criminal offenders as well as to lessen the potential for
drug use, violence, other forms of delinquency, and child abuse.
(2) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), written notice that a minor
enrolled in a public school, kindergarten to grade 12, inclusive, has
been found by a court of competent jurisdiction to have committed
any felony or any misdemeanor involving curfew, gambling, alcohol,
drugs, tobacco products, carrying of weapons, a sex offense listed in
Section 290 of the Penal Code, assault or battery, larceny,
vandalism, or graffiti shall be provided by the court, within seven
days, to the superintendent of the school district of attendance.
Written notice shall include only the offense found to have been
committed by the minor and the disposition of the minor's case. This
notice shall be expeditiously transmitted by the district
superintendent to the principal at the school of attendance. The
principal shall expeditiously disseminate the information to those
counselors directly supervising or reporting on the behavior or
progress of the minor. In addition, the principal shall disseminate
the information to any teacher or administrator directly supervising
or reporting on the behavior or progress of the minor whom the
principal believes needs the information to work with the pupil in an
appropriate fashion, to avoid being needlessly vulnerable or to
protect other persons from needless vulnerability.
Any information received by a teacher, counselor, or administrator
under this subdivision shall be received in confidence for the
limited purpose of rehabilitating the minor and protecting students
and staff, and shall not be further disseminated by the teacher,
counselor, or administrator, except insofar as communication with the
juvenile, his or her parents or guardians, law enforcement
personnel, and the juvenile's probation officer is necessary to
effectuate the juvenile's rehabilitation or to protect students and
An intentional violation of the confidentiality provisions of this
paragraph is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine not to exceed five
hundred dollars ($500).
(3) If a minor is removed from public school as a result of the
court's finding described in subdivision (b), the superintendent
shall maintain the information in a confidential file and shall defer
transmittal of the information received from the court until the
minor is returned to public school. If the minor is returned to a
school district other than the one from which the minor came, the
parole or probation officer having jurisdiction over the minor shall
so notify the superintendent of the last district of attendance, who
shall transmit the notice received from the court to the
superintendent of the new district of attendance.
(c) Each probation report filed with the court concerning a minor
whose record is subject to dissemination pursuant to subdivision (b)
shall include on the face sheet the school at which the minor is
currently enrolled. The county superintendent shall provide the court
with a listing of all of the schools within each school district,
within the county, along with the name and mailing address of each
(d) (1) Each notice sent by the court pursuant to subdivision (b)
shall be stamped with the instruction: "Unlawful Dissemination Of
This Information Is A Misdemeanor." Any information received from the
court shall be kept in a separate confidential file at the school of
attendance and shall be transferred to the minor's subsequent
schools of attendance and maintained until the minor graduates from
high school, is released from juvenile court jurisdiction, or reaches
the age of 18 years, whichever occurs first. After that time the
confidential record shall be destroyed. At any time after the date by
which a record required to be destroyed by this section should have
been destroyed, the minor or his or her parent or guardian shall have
the right to make a written request to the principal of the school
that the minor's school records be reviewed to ensure that the record
has been destroyed. Upon completion of any requested review and no
later than 30 days after the request for the review was received, the
principal or his or her designee shall respond in writing to the
written request and either shall confirm that the record has been
destroyed or, if the record has not been destroyed, shall explain why
destruction has not yet occurred.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b), no
liability shall attach to any person who transmits or fails to
transmit any notice or information required under subdivision (b).
(e) For purposes of this section, a "juvenile case file" means a
petition filed in any juvenile court proceeding, reports of the
probation officer, and all other documents filed in that case or made
available to the probation officer in making his or her report, or
to the judge, referee, or other hearing officer, and thereafter
retained by the probation officer, judge, referee, or other hearing
(f) The persons described in subparagraphs (A), (E), (F), (H),
(K), (L), (M), and (N) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) include
persons serving in a similar capacity for an Indian tribe,
reservation, or tribal court when the case file involves a child who
is a member of, or who is eligible for membership in, that tribe.
Last modified: February 16, 2015