California Code of Civil Procedure Section 527.8
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California Laws > Code of Civil Procedure > California Code of Civil Procedure Section 527.8
527.8. (a) Any employer, whose employee has suffered unlawful
violence or a credible threat of violence from any individual, that
can reasonably be construed to be carried out or to have been carried
out at the workplace, may seek a temporary restraining order and an
injunction on behalf of the employee and, at the discretion of the
court, any number of other employees at the workplace, and, if
appropriate, other employees at other workplaces of the employer.
(b) For the purposes of this section:
(1) "Course of conduct" is a pattern of conduct composed of a
series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a
continuity of purpose, including following or stalking an employee to
or from the place of work; entering the workplace; following an
employee during hours of employment; making telephone calls to an
employee; or sending correspondence to an employee by any means,
including, but not limited to, the use of the public or private
mails, interoffice mail, facsimile, or computer email.
(2) "Credible threat of violence" is a knowing and willful
statement or course of conduct that would place a reasonable person
in fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her immediate
family, and that serves no legitimate purpose.
(3) "Employer" and "employee" mean persons defined in Section 350
of the Labor Code. "Employer" also includes a federal agency, the
state, a state agency, a city, county, or district, and a private,
public, or quasi-public corporation, or any public agency thereof or
therein. "Employee" also includes the members of boards of directors
of private, public, and quasi-public corporations and elected and
appointed public officers. For purposes of this section only,
"employee" also includes a volunteer or independent contractor who
performs services for the employer at the employer's worksite.
(4) "Petitioner" means the employer that petitions under
subdivision (a) for a temporary restraining order and injunction.
(5) "Respondent" means the person against whom the temporary
restraining order and injunction are sought and, if the petition is
granted, the restrained person.
(6) "Temporary restraining order" and "injunction" mean orders
that include any of the following restraining orders, whether issued
ex parte or after notice and hearing:
(A) An order enjoining a party from harassing, intimidating,
molesting, attacking, striking, stalking, threatening, sexually
assaulting, battering, abusing, telephoning, including, but not
limited to, making annoying telephone calls as described in Section
653m of the Penal Code, destroying personal property, contacting,
either directly or indirectly, by mail or otherwise, or coming within
a specified distance of, or disturbing the peace of, the employee.
(B) An order enjoining a party from specified behavior that the
court determines is necessary to effectuate orders described in
(7) "Unlawful violence" is any assault or battery, or stalking as
prohibited in Section 646.9 of the Penal Code, but shall not include
lawful acts of self-defense or defense of others.
(c) This section does not permit a court to issue a temporary
restraining order or injunction prohibiting speech or other
activities that are constitutionally protected, or otherwise
protected by Section 527.3 or any other provision of law.
(d) In the discretion of the court, on a showing of good cause, a
temporary restraining order or injunction issued under this section
may include other named family or household members, or other persons
employed at the employee's workplace or workplaces.
(e) Upon filing a petition for an injunction under this section,
the petitioner may obtain a temporary restraining order in accordance
with subdivision (a) of Section 527, if the petitioner also files a
declaration that, to the satisfaction of the court, shows reasonable
proof that an employee has suffered unlawful violence or a credible
threat of violence by the respondent, and that great or irreparable
harm would result to an employee. The temporary restraining order may
include any of the protective orders described in paragraph (6) of
(f) A request for the issuance of a temporary restraining order
without notice under this section shall be granted or denied on the
same day that the petition is submitted to the court, unless the
petition is filed too late in the day to permit effective review, in
which case the order shall be granted or denied on the next day of
judicial business in sufficient time for the order to be filed that
day with the clerk of the court.
(g) A temporary restraining order granted under this section shall
remain in effect, at the court's discretion, for a period not to
exceed 21 days, or if the court extends the time for hearing under
subdivision (h), not to exceed 25 days, unless otherwise modified or
terminated by the court.
(h) Within 21 days, or if good cause appears to the court, 25 days
from the date that a petition for a temporary order is granted or
denied, a hearing shall be held on the petition for the injunction.
If no request for temporary orders is made, the hearing shall be held
within 21 days, or, if good cause appears to the court, 25 days,
from the date that the petition is filed.
(i) The respondent may file a response that explains, excuses,
justifies, or denies the alleged unlawful violence or credible
threats of violence.
(j) At the hearing, the judge shall receive any testimony that is
relevant and may make an independent inquiry. Moreover, if the
respondent is a current employee of the entity requesting the
injunction, the judge shall receive evidence concerning the employer'
s decision to retain, terminate, or otherwise discipline the
respondent. If the judge finds by clear and convincing evidence that
the respondent engaged in unlawful violence or made a credible threat
of violence, an injunction shall issue prohibiting further unlawful
violence or threats of violence.
(k) (1) In the discretion of the court, an order issued after
notice and hearing under this section may have a duration of not more
than three years, subject to termination or modification by further
order of the court either on written stipulation filed with the court
or on the motion of a party. These orders may be renewed, upon the
request of a party, for a duration of not more than three years,
without a showing of any further violence or threats of violence
since the issuance of the original order, subject to termination or
modification by further order of the court either on written
stipulation filed with the court or on the motion of a party. The
request for renewal may be brought at any time within the three
months before the expiration of the order.
(2) The failure to state the expiration date on the face of the
form creates an order with a duration of three years from the date of
(3) If an action is filed for the purpose of terminating or
modifying a protective order prior to the expiration date specified
in the order by a party other than the protected party, the party who
is protected by the order shall be given notice, pursuant to
subdivision (b) of Section 1005, of the proceeding by personal
service or, if the protected party has satisfied the requirements of
Chapter 3.1 (commencing with Section 6205) of Division 7 of Title 1
of the Government Code, by service on the Secretary of State. If the
party who is protected by the order cannot be notified prior to the
hearing for modification or termination of the protective order, the
court shall deny the motion to modify or terminate the order without
prejudice or continue the hearing until the party who is protected
can be properly noticed and may, upon a showing of good cause,
specify another method for service of process that is reasonably
designed to afford actual notice to the protected party. The
protected party may waive his or her right to notice if he or she is
physically present in court and does not challenge the sufficiency of
(l) This section does not preclude either party from
representation by private counsel or from appearing on his or her own
(m) Upon filing of a petition for an injunction under this
section, the respondent shall be personally served with a copy of the
petition, temporary restraining order, if any, and notice of hearing
of the petition. Service shall be made at least five days before the
hearing. The court may, for good cause, on motion of the petitioner
or on its own motion, shorten the time for service on the respondent.
(n) A notice of hearing under this section shall notify the
respondent that, if he or she does not attend the hearing, the court
may make orders against him or her that could last up to three years.
(o) (1) The court may, upon the filing of a declaration by the
petitioner that the respondent could not be served within the time
required by statute, reissue an order previously issued and dissolved
by the court for failure to serve the respondent. The reissued order
shall remain in effect until the date set for the hearing.
(2) The reissued order shall state on its face the date of
expiration of the order.
(p) (1) If a respondent, named in a restraining order issued under
this section after a hearing, has not been served personally with
the order but has received actual notice of the existence and
substance of the order through personal appearance in court to hear
the terms of the order from the court, no additional proof of service
is required for enforcement of the order.
(2) If the respondent named in a temporary restraining order is
personally served with the order and notice of hearing with respect
to a restraining order or protective order based on the temporary
restraining order, but the person does not appear at the hearing,
either personally or by an attorney, and the terms and conditions of
the restraining order or protective order issued at the hearing are
identical to the temporary restraining order, except for the duration
of the order, then the restraining order or protective order issued
at the hearing may be served on the person by first-class mail sent
to that person at the most current address for the person available
to the court.
(3) The Judicial Council form for temporary orders issued pursuant
to this subdivision shall contain a statement in substantially the
"If you have been personally served with this temporary
restraining order and notice of hearing, but you do not appear at the
hearing either in person or by a lawyer, and a restraining order
that is the same as this restraining order except for the expiration
date is issued at the hearing, a copy of the order will be served on
you by mail at the following address: ____.
If that address is not correct or you wish to verify that the
temporary restraining order was converted to a restraining order at
the hearing without substantive change and to find out the duration
of that order, contact the clerk of the court."
(q) (1) Information on any temporary restraining order or
injunction relating to workplace violence issued by a court pursuant
to this section shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice in
accordance with either paragraph (2) or (3).
(2) The court shall order the petitioner or the attorney for the
petitioner to deliver a copy of any order issued under this section,
or a reissuance, extension, modification, or termination of the
order, and any subsequent proof of service, by the close of the
business day on which the order, reissuance, extension, modification,
or termination was made, to each law enforcement agency having
jurisdiction over the residence of the petitioner and to any
additional law enforcement agencies within the court's discretion as
are requested by the petitioner.
(3) Alternatively, the court or its designee shall transmit,
within one business day, to law enforcement personnel all information
required under subdivision (b) of Section 6380 of the Family Code
regarding any order issued under this section, or a reissuance,
extension, modification, or termination of the order, and any
subsequent proof of service, by either one of the following methods:
(A) Transmitting a physical copy of the order or proof of service
to a local law enforcement agency authorized by the Department of
Justice to enter orders into the California Law Enforcement
Telecommunications System (CLETS).
(B) With the approval of the Department of Justice, entering the
order or proof of service into CLETS directly.
(4) Each appropriate law enforcement agency shall make available
information as to the existence and current status of these orders to
law enforcement officers responding to the scene of reported
unlawful violence or a credible threat of violence.
(5) At the request of the petitioner, an order issued under this
section shall be served on the respondent, regardless of whether the
respondent has been taken into custody, by any law enforcement
officer who is present at the scene of reported unlawful violence or
a credible threat of violence involving the parties to the
proceedings. The petitioner shall provide the officer with an
endorsed copy of the order and proof of service that the officer
shall complete and send to the issuing court.
(6) Upon receiving information at the scene of an incident of
unlawful violence or a credible threat of violence that a protective
order has been issued under this section, or that a person who has
been taken into custody is the subject of an order, if the petitioner
or the protected person cannot produce an endorsed copy of the
order, a law enforcement officer shall immediately attempt to verify
the existence of the order.
(7) If the law enforcement officer determines that a protective
order has been issued, but not served, the officer shall immediately
notify the respondent of the terms of the order and obtain the
respondent's address. The law enforcement officer shall at that time
also enforce the order, but may not arrest or take the respondent
into custody for acts in violation of the order that were committed
prior to the verbal notice of the terms and conditions of the order.
The law enforcement officer's verbal notice of the terms of the order
shall constitute service of the order and constitutes sufficient
notice for the purposes of this section and for the purposes of
Section 29825 of the Penal Code. The petitioner shall mail an
endorsed copy of the order to the respondent's mailing address
provided to the law enforcement officer within one business day of
the reported incident of unlawful violence or a credible threat of
violence at which a verbal notice of the terms of the order was
provided by a law enforcement officer.
(r) (1) A person subject to a protective order issued under this
section shall not own, possess, purchase, receive, or attempt to
purchase or receive a firearm or ammunition while the protective
order is in effect.
(2) The court shall order a person subject to a protective order
issued under this section to relinquish any firearms he or she owns
or possesses pursuant to Section 527.9.
(3) Every person who owns, possesses, purchases or receives, or
attempts to purchase or receive a firearm or ammunition while the
protective order is in effect is punishable pursuant to Section 29825
of the Penal Code.
(s) Any intentional disobedience of any temporary restraining
order or injunction granted under this section is punishable pursuant
to Section 273.6 of the Penal Code.
(t) Nothing in this section may be construed as expanding,
diminishing, altering, or modifying the duty, if any, of an employer
to provide a safe workplace for employees and other persons.
(u) (1) The Judicial Council shall develop forms, instructions,
and rules for relating to matters governed by this section. The forms
for the petition and response shall be simple and concise, and their
use by parties in actions brought pursuant to this section shall be
(2) A temporary restraining order or injunction relating to
unlawful violence or a credible threat of violence issued by a court
pursuant to this section shall be issued on forms adopted by the
Judicial Council of California and that have been approved by the
Department of Justice pursuant to subdivision (i) of Section 6380 of
the Family Code. However, the fact that an order issued by a court
pursuant to this section was not issued on forms adopted by the
Judicial Council and approved by the Department of Justice shall not,
in and of itself, make the order unenforceable.
(v) There is no filing fee for a petition that alleges that a
person has inflicted or threatened violence against an employee of
the petitioner, or stalked the employee, or acted or spoken in any
other manner that has placed the employee in reasonable fear of
violence, and that seeks a protective or restraining order or
injunction restraining stalking or future violence or threats of
violence, in any action brought pursuant to this section. No fee
shall be paid for a subpoena filed in connection with a petition
alleging these acts. No fee shall be paid for filing a response to a
petition alleging these acts.
(w) (1) Subject to paragraph (4) of subdivision (b) of Section
6103.2 of the Government Code, there shall be no fee for the service
of process by a sheriff or marshal of a temporary restraining order
or injunction to be issued pursuant to this section if either of the
following conditions applies:
(A) The temporary restraining order or injunction issued pursuant
to this section is based upon stalking, as prohibited by Section
646.9 of the Penal Code.
(B) The temporary restraining order or injunction issued pursuant
to this section is based on unlawful violence or a credible threat of
(2) The Judicial Council shall prepare and develop forms for
persons who wish to avail themselves of the services described in
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Last modified: March 17, 2014