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California Penal Code Section 1370

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1370.  (a) (1) (A) If the defendant is found mentally competent, the
criminal process shall resume, the trial on the offense charged
shall proceed, and judgment may be pronounced.
   (B) If the defendant is found mentally incompetent, the trial or
judgment shall be suspended until the person becomes mentally
competent.
   (i) In the meantime, the court shall order that the mentally
incompetent defendant be delivered by the sheriff to a state hospital
for the care and treatment of the mentally disordered, or to any
other available public or private treatment facility, including a
local county jail treatment facility, approved by the community
program director that will promote the defendant's speedy restoration
to mental competence, or placed on outpatient status as specified in
Section 1600.
   (ii) However, if the action against the defendant who has been
found mentally incompetent is on a complaint charging a felony
offense specified in Section 290, the prosecutor shall determine
whether the defendant previously has been found mentally incompetent
to stand trial pursuant to this chapter on a charge of a Section 290
offense, or whether the defendant is currently the subject of a
pending Section 1368 proceeding arising out of a charge of a Section
290 offense. If either determination is made, the prosecutor shall so
notify the court and defendant in writing. After this notification,
and opportunity for hearing, the court shall order that the defendant
be delivered by the sheriff to a state hospital or other secure
treatment facility for the care and treatment of the mentally
disordered unless the court makes specific findings on the record
that an alternative placement would provide more appropriate
treatment for the defendant and would not pose a danger to the health
and safety of others.
   (iii) If the action against the defendant who has been found
mentally incompetent is on a complaint charging a felony offense
specified in Section 290 and the defendant has been denied bail
pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 12 of Article I of the
California Constitution because the court has found, based upon clear
and convincing evidence, a substantial likelihood that the person's
release would result in great bodily harm to others, the court shall
order that the defendant be delivered by the sheriff to a state
hospital for the care and treatment of the mentally disordered unless
the court makes specific findings on the record that an alternative
placement would provide more appropriate treatment for the defendant
and would not pose a danger to the health and safety of others.
   (iv) The clerk of the court shall notify the Department of Justice
in writing of any finding of mental incompetence with respect to a
defendant who is subject to clause (ii) or (iii) for inclusion in his
or her state summary criminal history information.
   (C) Upon the filing of a certificate of restoration to competence,
the court shall order that the defendant be returned to court in
accordance with Section 1372. The court shall transmit a copy of its
order to the community program director or a designee.
   (D) A defendant charged with a violent felony may not be delivered
to a state hospital or treatment facility pursuant to this
subdivision unless the state hospital or treatment facility has a
secured perimeter or a locked and controlled treatment facility, and
the judge determines that the public safety will be protected.
   (E) For purposes of this paragraph, "violent felony" means an
offense specified in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5.
   (F) A defendant charged with a violent felony may be placed on
outpatient status, as specified in Section 1600, only if the court
finds that the placement will not pose a danger to the health or
safety of others. If the court places a defendant charged with a
violent felony on outpatient status, as specified in Section 1600,
the court must serve copies of the placement order on defense
counsel, the sheriff in the county where the defendant will be placed
and the district attorney for the county in which the violent felony
charges are pending against the defendant.
   (2) Prior to making the order directing that the defendant be
confined in a state hospital or other treatment facility or placed on
outpatient status, the court shall proceed as follows:
   (A) The court shall order the community program director or a
designee to evaluate the defendant and to submit to the court within
15 judicial days of the order a written recommendation as to whether
the defendant should be required to undergo outpatient treatment, or
committed to a state hospital or to any other treatment facility. No
person shall be admitted to a state hospital or other treatment
facility or placed on outpatient status under this section without
having been evaluated by the community program director or a
designee. The community program director or designee shall evaluate
the appropriate placement for the defendant between a state hospital
or a local county jail treatment facility based upon guidelines
provided by the State Department of State Hospitals. If a local
county jail treatment facility is selected, the State Department of
State Hospitals shall provide treatment at the county jail treatment
facility and reimburse the county jail treatment facility for the
reasonable costs of the bed during the treatment. The six-month
limitation in Section 1369.1 shall not apply to individuals deemed
incompetent to stand trial who are being treated to restore
competency within a county jail treatment facility pursuant to this
section.
   (B) The court shall hear and determine whether the defendant lacks
capacity to make decisions regarding the administration of
antipsychotic medication, and shall proceed as follows:
   (i) The court shall hear and determine whether any of the
following is true:
   (I) The defendant lacks capacity to make decisions regarding
antipsychotic medication, the defendant's mental disorder requires
medical treatment with antipsychotic medication, and, if the
defendant's mental disorder is not treated with antipsychotic
medication, it is probable that serious harm to the physical or
mental health of the patient will result. Probability of serious harm
to the physical or mental health of the defendant requires evidence
that the defendant is presently suffering adverse effects to his or
her physical or mental health, or the defendant has previously
suffered these effects as a result of a mental disorder and his or
her condition is substantially deteriorating. The fact that a
defendant has a diagnosis of a mental disorder does not alone
establish probability of serious harm to the physical or mental
health of the defendant.
   (II) The defendant is a danger to others, in that the defendant
has inflicted, attempted to inflict, or made a serious threat of
inflicting substantial physical harm on another while in custody, or
the defendant had inflicted, attempted to inflict, or made a serious
threat of inflicting substantial physical harm on another that
resulted in his or her being taken into custody, and the defendant
presents, as a result of mental disorder or mental defect, a
demonstrated danger of inflicting substantial physical harm on
others. Demonstrated danger may be based on an assessment of the
defendant's present mental condition, including a consideration of
past behavior of the defendant within six years prior to the time the
defendant last attempted to inflict, inflicted, or threatened to
inflict substantial physical harm on another, and other relevant
evidence.
   (III) The people have charged the defendant with a serious crime
against the person or property, involuntary administration of
antipsychotic medication is substantially likely to render the
defendant competent to stand trial, the medication is unlikely to
have side effects that interfere with the defendant's ability to
understand the nature of the criminal proceedings or to assist
counsel in the conduct of a defense in a reasonable manner, less
intrusive treatments are unlikely to have substantially the same
results, and antipsychotic medication is in the patient's best
medical interest in light of his or her medical condition.
   (ii) If the court finds any of the conditions described in clause
(i) to be true, the court shall issue an order authorizing the
treatment facility to involuntarily administer antipsychotic
medication to the defendant when and as prescribed by the defendant's
treating psychiatrist. The court shall not order involuntary
administration of psychotropic medication under subclause (III) of
clause (i) unless the court has first found that the defendant does
not meet the criteria for involuntary administration of psychotropic
medication under subclause (I) of clause (i) and does not meet the
criteria under subclause (II) of clause (i).
   (iii) In all cases, the treating hospital, facility, or program
may administer medically appropriate antipsychotic medication
prescribed by a psychiatrist in an emergency as described in
subdivision (m) of Section 5008 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
   (iv) If the court has determined that the defendant has the
capacity to make decisions regarding antipsychotic medication, and if
the defendant, with advice of his or her counsel, consents, the
court order of commitment shall include confirmation that
antipsychotic medication may be given to the defendant as prescribed
by a treating psychiatrist pursuant to the defendant's consent. The
commitment order shall also indicate that, if the defendant withdraws
consent for antipsychotic medication, after the treating
psychiatrist complies with the provisions of subparagraph (C), the
defendant shall be returned to court for a hearing in accordance with
subparagraphs (C) and (D) regarding whether antipsychotic medication
shall be administered involuntarily.
   (v) If the court has determined that the defendant has the
capacity to make decisions regarding antipsychotic medication and if
the defendant, with advice from his or her counsel, does not consent,
the court order for commitment shall indicate that, after the
treating psychiatrist complies with the provisions of subparagraph
(C), the defendant shall be returned to court for a hearing in
accordance with subparagraphs (C) and (D) regarding whether
antipsychotic medication shall be administered involuntarily.
   (vi) Any report made pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b)
shall include a description of any antipsychotic medication
administered to the defendant and its effects and side effects,
including effects on the defendant's appearance or behavior that
would affect the defendant's ability to understand the nature of the
criminal proceedings or to assist counsel in the conduct of a defense
in a reasonable manner. During the time the defendant is confined in
a state hospital or other treatment facility or placed on outpatient
status, either the defendant or the people may request that the
court review any order made pursuant to this subdivision. The
defendant, to the same extent enjoyed by other patients in the state
hospital or other treatment facility, shall have the right to contact
the patients' rights advocate regarding his or her rights under this
section.
   (C) If the defendant consented to antipsychotic medication as
described in clause (iv) of subparagraph (B), but subsequently
withdraws his or her consent, or, if involuntary antipsychotic
medication was not ordered pursuant to clause (v) of subparagraph
(B), and the treating psychiatrist determines that antipsychotic
medication has become medically necessary and appropriate, the
treating psychiatrist shall make efforts to obtain informed consent
from the defendant for antipsychotic medication. If informed consent
is not obtained from the defendant, and the treating psychiatrist is
of the opinion that the defendant lacks capacity to make decisions
regarding antipsychotic medication based on the conditions described
in subclause (I) or (II) of clause (i) of subparagraph (B), the
treating psychiatrist shall certify whether the lack of capacity and
any applicable conditions described above exist. That certification
shall contain an assessment of the current mental status of the
defendant and the opinion of the treating psychiatrist that
involuntary antipsychotic medication has become medically necessary
and appropriate.
   (D) (i) If the treating psychiatrist certifies that antipsychotic
medication has become medically necessary and appropriate pursuant to
subparagraph (C), antipsychotic medication may be administered to
the defendant for not more than 21 days, provided, however, that,
within 72 hours of the certification, the defendant is provided a
medication review hearing before an administrative law judge to be
conducted at the facility where the defendant is receiving treatment.
The treating psychiatrist shall present the case for the
certification for involuntary treatment and the defendant shall be
represented by an attorney or a patients' rights advocate. The
attorney or patients' rights advocate shall be appointed to meet with
the defendant no later than one day prior to the medication review
hearing to review the defendant's rights at the medication review
hearing, discuss the process, answer questions or concerns regarding
involuntary medication or the hearing, assist the defendant in
preparing for the hearing and advocating for his or her interests at
the hearing, review the panel's final determination following the
hearing, advise the defendant of his or her right to judicial review
of the panel's decision, and provide the defendant with referral
information for legal advice on the subject. The defendant shall also
have the following rights with respect to the medication review
hearing:
   (I) To being given timely access to the defendant's records.
   (II)  To be present at the hearing, unless the defendant waives
that right.
   (III) To present evidence at the hearing.
   (IV) To question persons presenting evidence supporting
involuntary medication.
   (V) To make reasonable requests for attendance of witnesses on the
defendant's behalf.
   (VI) To a hearing conducted in an impartial and informal manner.
   (ii) If the administrative law judge determines that the defendant
either meets the criteria specified in subclause (I) of clause (i)
of subparagraph (B), or meets the criteria specified in subclause
(II) of clause (i) of subparagraph (B), then antipsychotic medication
may continue to be administered to the defendant for the 21-day
certification period. Concurrently with the treating psychiatrist's
certification, the treating psychiatrist shall file a copy of the
certification and a petition with the court for issuance of an order
to administer antipsychotic medication beyond the 21-day
certification period. For purposes of this subparagraph, the treating
psychiatrist shall not be required to pay or deposit any fee for the
filing of the petition or other document or paper related to the
petition.
   (iii) If the administrative law judge disagrees with the
certification, medication may not be administered involuntarily until
the court determines that antipsychotic medication should be
administered pursuant to this section.
   (iv) The court shall provide notice to the prosecuting attorney
and to the attorney representing the defendant, and shall hold a
hearing, no later than 18 days from the date of the certification, to
determine whether antipsychotic medication should be ordered beyond
the certification period.
   (v) If, as a result of the hearing, the court determines that
antipsychotic medication should be administered beyond the
certification period, the court shall issue an order authorizing the
administration of that medication.
   (vi) The court shall render its decision on the petition and issue
its order no later than three calendar days after the hearing and,
in any event, no later than the expiration of the 21-day
certification period.
   (3) When the court orders that the defendant be confined in a
state hospital or other public or private treatment facility, the
court shall provide copies of the following documents which shall be
taken with the defendant to the state hospital or other treatment
facility where the defendant is to be confined:
   (A) The commitment order, including a specification of the
charges.
   (B) A computation or statement setting forth the maximum term of
commitment in accordance with subdivision (c).
   (C) A computation or statement setting forth the amount of credit
for time served, if any, to be deducted from the maximum term of
commitment.
   (D) State summary criminal history information.
   (E) Any arrest reports prepared by the police department or other
law enforcement agency.
   (F) Any court-ordered psychiatric examination or evaluation
reports.
   (G) The community program director's placement recommendation
report.
   (H) Records of any finding of mental incompetence pursuant to this
chapter arising out of a complaint charging a felony offense
specified in Section 290 or any pending Section 1368 proceeding
arising out of a charge of a Section 290 offense.
   (4) When the defendant is committed to a treatment facility
pursuant to clause (i) of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) or the
court makes the findings specified in clause (ii) or (iii) of
subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) to assign the defendant to a
treatment facility other than a state hospital or other secure
treatment facility, the court shall order that notice be given to the
appropriate law enforcement agency or agencies having local
jurisdiction at the site of the placement facility of any finding of
mental incompetence pursuant to this chapter arising out of a charge
of a Section 290 offense.
   (5) When directing that the defendant be confined in a state
hospital pursuant to this subdivision, the court shall select the
hospital in accordance with the policies established by the State
Department of State Hospitals.
   (6) (A) If the defendant is committed or transferred to a state
hospital pursuant to this section, the court may, upon receiving the
written recommendation of the medical director of the state hospital
and the community program director that the defendant be transferred
to a public or private treatment facility approved by the community
program director, order the defendant transferred to that facility.
If the defendant is committed or transferred to a public or private
treatment facility approved by the community program director, the
court may, upon receiving the written recommendation of the community
program director, transfer the defendant to a state hospital or to
another public or private treatment facility approved by the
community program director. In the event of dismissal of the criminal
charges before the defendant recovers competence, the person shall
be subject to the applicable provisions of the Lanterman-Petris-Short
Act (Part 1 (commencing with Section 5000) of Division 5 of the
Welfare and Institutions Code). Where either the defendant or the
prosecutor chooses to contest either kind of order of transfer, a
petition may be filed in the court for a hearing, which shall be held
if the court determines that sufficient grounds exist. At the
hearing, the prosecuting attorney or the defendant may present
evidence bearing on the order of transfer. The court shall use the
same standards as are used in conducting probation revocation
hearings pursuant to Section 1203.2.
   Prior to making an order for transfer under this section, the
court shall notify the defendant, the attorney of record for the
defendant, the prosecuting attorney, and the community program
director or a designee.
   (B) If the defendant is initially committed to a state hospital or
secure treatment facility pursuant to clause (ii) or (iii) of
subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) and is subsequently transferred to
any other facility, copies of the documents specified in paragraph
(3) shall be taken with the defendant to each subsequent facility to
which the defendant is transferred. The transferring facility shall
also notify the appropriate law enforcement agency or agencies having
local jurisdiction at the site of the new facility that the
defendant is a person subject to clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph
(B) of paragraph (1).
   (7) An order by the court authorizing involuntary medication of
the defendant shall be valid for no more than one year. The court
shall review the order six months after the order was made to
determine if the grounds for the authorization remain. In the review,
the court shall consider the reports of the treating psychiatrist or
psychiatrists and the defendant's patients' rights advocate or
attorney. The court may require testimony from the treating
psychiatrist or psychiatrists and the patients' rights advocate or
attorney, if necessary. The court may continue the order authorizing
involuntary medication for up to another six months, or vacate the
order, or make any other appropriate order.
   (b) (1) Within 90 days of a commitment made pursuant to
subdivision (a), the medical director of the state hospital or other
treatment facility to which the defendant is confined shall make a
written report to the court and the community program director for
the county or region of commitment, or a designee, concerning the
defendant's progress toward recovery of mental competence. Where the
defendant is on outpatient status, the outpatient treatment staff
shall make a written report to the community program director
concerning the defendant's progress toward recovery of mental
competence. Within 90 days of placement on outpatient status, the
community program director shall report to the court on this matter.
If the defendant has not recovered mental competence, but the report
discloses a substantial likelihood that the defendant will regain
mental competence in the foreseeable future, the defendant shall
remain in the state hospital or other treatment facility or on
outpatient status. Thereafter, at six-month intervals or until the
defendant becomes mentally competent, where the defendant is confined
in a treatment facility, the medical director of the hospital or
person in charge of the facility shall report in writing to the court
and the community program director or a designee regarding the
defendant's progress toward recovery of mental competence. Where the
defendant is on outpatient status, after the initial 90-day report,
the outpatient treatment staff shall report to the community program
director on the defendant's progress toward recovery, and the
community program director shall report to the court on this matter
at six-month intervals. A copy of these reports shall be provided to
the prosecutor and defense counsel by the court. If the report
indicates that there is no substantial likelihood that the defendant
will regain mental competence in the foreseeable future, the
committing court shall order the defendant to be returned to the
court for proceedings pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (c).
The court shall transmit a copy of its order to the community program
director or a designee.
   (2) Where the court has issued an order authorizing the treating
facility to involuntarily administer antipsychotic medication to the
defendant, the reports made at six-month intervals concerning the
defendant's progress toward regaining competency shall also consider
the issue of involuntary medication. Each report shall include, but
is not limited to, all the following:
   (A) Whether or not the defendant has the capacity to make
decisions concerning antipsychotic medication.
   (B) If the defendant lacks capacity to make decisions concerning
antipsychotic medication, whether the defendant risks serious harm to
his or her physical or mental health if not treated with
antipsychotic medication.
   (C) Whether or not the defendant presents a danger to others if he
or she is not treated with antipsychotic medication.
   (D) Whether the defendant has a mental illness for which
medications are the only effective treatment.
   (E) Whether there are any side effects from the medication
currently being experienced by the defendant that would interfere
with the defendant's ability to collaborate with counsel.
   (F) Whether there are any effective alternatives to medication.
   (G) How quickly the medication is likely to bring the defendant to
competency.
   (H) Whether the treatment plan includes methods other than
medication to restore the defendant to competency.
   (I) A statement, if applicable, that no medication is likely to
restore the defendant to competency.
   (3) After reviewing the reports, the court shall determine whether
or not grounds for the order authorizing involuntary administration
of antipsychotic medication still exist and shall do one of the
following:
   (A) If the original grounds for involuntary medication still
exist, the order authorizing the treating facility to involuntarily
administer antipsychotic medication to the defendant shall remain in
effect.
   (B) If the original grounds for involuntary medication no longer
exist, and there is no other basis for involuntary administration of
antipsychotic medication, the order for the involuntary
administration of antipsychotic medication shall be vacated.
   (C) If the original grounds for involuntary medication no longer
exist, and the report states that there is another basis for
involuntary administration of antipsychotic medication, the court
shall set a hearing within 21 days to determine whether the order for
the involuntary administration of antipsychotic medication shall be
vacated or whether a new order for the involuntary administration of
antipsychotic medication shall be issued. The hearing shall proceed
as set forth in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a).
   (4) Any defendant who has been committed or has been on outpatient
status for 18 months and is still hospitalized or on outpatient
status shall be returned to the committing court where a hearing
shall be held pursuant to the procedures set forth in Section 1369.
The court shall transmit a copy of its order to the community program
director or a designee.
   (5) If it is determined by the court that no treatment for the
defendant's mental impairment is being conducted, the defendant shall
be returned to the committing court. The court shall transmit a copy
of its order to the community program director or a designee.
   (6) At each review by the court specified in this subdivision, the
court shall determine if the security level of housing and treatment
is appropriate and may make an order in accordance with its
determination. If the court determines that the defendant shall
continue to be treated in the state hospital or on an outpatient
basis, the court shall determine issues concerning

                                        administration of
antipsychotic medication, as set forth in subparagraph (B) of
paragraph (2) of subdivision (a).
   (c) (1) At the end of three years from the date of commitment or a
period of commitment equal to the maximum term of imprisonment
provided by law for the most serious offense charged in the
information, indictment, or misdemeanor complaint, whichever is
shorter, a defendant who has not recovered mental competence shall be
returned to the committing court. The court shall notify the
community program director or a designee of the return and of any
resulting court orders.
   (2) Whenever any defendant is returned to the court pursuant to
paragraph (1) or (4) of subdivision (b) or paragraph (1) of this
subdivision and it appears to the court that the defendant is gravely
disabled, as defined in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of
subdivision (h) of Section 5008 of the Welfare and Institutions Code,
the court shall order the conservatorship investigator of the county
of commitment of the defendant to initiate conservatorship
proceedings for the defendant pursuant to Chapter 3 (commencing with
Section 5350) of Part 1 of Division 5 of the Welfare and Institutions
Code. Any hearings required in the conservatorship proceedings shall
be held in the superior court in the county that ordered the
commitment. The court shall transmit a copy of the order directing
initiation of conservatorship proceedings to the community program
director or a designee, the sheriff and the district attorney of the
county in which criminal charges are pending, and the defendant's
counsel of record. The court shall notify the community program
director or a designee, the sheriff and district attorney of the
county in which criminal charges are pending, and the defendant's
counsel of record of the outcome of the conservatorship proceedings.
   (3) If a change in placement is proposed for a defendant who is
committed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of
subdivision (h) of Section 5008 of the Welfare and Institutions Code,
the court shall provide notice and an opportunity to be heard with
respect to the proposed placement of the defendant to the sheriff and
the district attorney of the county in which criminal charges are
pending.
   (4) Where the defendant is confined in a treatment facility, a
copy of any report to the committing court regarding the defendant's
progress toward recovery of mental competence shall be provided by
the committing court to the prosecutor and to the defense counsel.
   (d) The criminal action remains subject to dismissal pursuant to
Section 1385. If the criminal action is dismissed, the court shall
transmit a copy of the order of dismissal to the community program
director or a designee.
   (e) If the criminal charge against the defendant is dismissed, the
defendant shall be released from any commitment ordered under this
section, but without prejudice to the initiation of any proceedings
that may be appropriate under the Lanterman-Petris-Short Act, Part 1
(commencing with Section 5000) of Division 5 of the Welfare and
Institutions Code.
   (f) As used in this chapter, "community program director" means
the person, agency, or entity designated by the State Department of
State Hospitals pursuant to Section 1605 of this code and Section
4360 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
   (g) For the purpose of this section, "secure treatment facility"
shall not include, except for state mental hospitals, state
developmental centers, and correctional treatment facilities, any
facility licensed pursuant to Chapter 2 (commencing with Section
1250) of, Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 1500) of, or Chapter 3.2
(commencing with Section 1569) of, Division 2 of the Health and
Safety Code, or any community board and care facility.
   (h) Nothing in this section shall preclude a defendant from filing
a petition for habeas corpus to challenge the continuing validity of
an order authorizing a treatment facility or outpatient program to
involuntarily administer antipsychotic medication to a person being
treated as incompetent to stand trial.
   (i) This section shall become operative on July 1, 2012.


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Last modified: March 17, 2014