(3)     the buttons of the character key pad connected to the connection means interconnecting                       
                the buttons of the numeric key pad to a tone generator so that subsets of the character key pad buttons                       
                produce the same indication as one of the numeric key pad buttons (Bhagavatula Claim 7);                                      
                         (4)     a numeric keypad and an alphabetic keypad directly connected to a telephone dialing                          
                circuit with the alphabetic keys connected with a predetermined mapping to the numeric keys of the                            
                telephone (Bhagavatula Claim 9);                                                                                              
                         (5)     switch contacts of the keyboard connecting or connectable to first and second inputs of                      
                a dialing circuit to generate a dialing signal and the switch contacts being mapped to the numeric keys of                    
                the telephone (Bhagavatula Claim 10 and Solomon Claim 1); and                                                                 
                         (6)     connecting the switch contacts of an alphabetic key board in a predetermined mapping to                      
                the numeric keys of the telephone keypad and generating a telephone dialing signal by pressing a key on                       
                the alphabetic keyboard which signal corresponds to the signal generated by pressing a numeric key                            
                (Bhagavatula Claim 19 and Solomon Claim 11).                                                                                  
                         Solomon’s and Recalde’s testimony that Solomon “used the prototype device to order                                   
                flowers . . .” is of little evidentiary value in proving an actual reduction to practice.  The testimony does not             
                tell us how the device was used to place the call.  The testimony does not identify the number that was                       
                called or, more importantly, how the number was dialed.  As shown in the photographs, the device includes                     
                a standard telephone.  The telephone, without the use of the key board, could have been used to make the                      
                call.  Thus, the testimony does not establish, by a preponderance of the evidence,  that an operative device                  
                was constructed and, if it was constructed, how it was tested.                                                                
                         Solomon has failed to prove an actual reduction to practice of an embodiment within the scope of                     
                the count.                                                                                                                    
                                 3.               Conception                                                                                  
                         Conception is the formation "in the mind of the inventor of a definite and  permanent idea of the                    
                complete and operative invention, as it is therefore to be applied in practice."  Kridl v. McCormick, 105                     
                F.3d 1446, 1449, 41 USPQ2d 1686, 1689 (Fed. Cir. 1997); Mahurkar v. C.R. Bard, Inc., 79 F.3d                                  
                1572, 1577, 38 USPQ2d 1288, 1290-91 (Fed. Cir. 1996); Burroughs Wellcome Co. v. Barr Labs., Inc.,                             

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