§ 4208. Presentment warranties.
(a) General rule.--If an unaccepted draft is presented to the drawee for payment or acceptance and the drawee pays or accepts the draft, the person obtaining payment or acceptance, at the time of presentment, and a previous transferor of the draft, at the time of transfer, warrant to the drawee that pays or accepts the draft in good faith that:
(1) the warrantor is, or was, at the time the warrantor transferred the draft, a person entitled to enforce the draft or authorized to obtain payment or acceptance of the draft on behalf of a person entitled to enforce the draft;
(2) the draft has not been altered; and
(3) the warrantor has no knowledge that the signature of the purported drawer of the draft is unauthorized.
(b) Measure of damages for breach of warranty.--A drawee making payment may recover from a warrantor damages for breach of warranty equal to the amount paid by the drawee less the amount the drawee received or is entitled to receive from the drawer because of the payment. In addition, the drawee is entitled to compensation for expenses and loss of interest resulting from the breach. The right of the drawee to recover damages under this subsection is not affected by any failure of the drawee to exercise ordinary care in making payment. If the drawee accepts the draft, breach of warranty is a defense to the obligation of the acceptor, and if the acceptor makes payment with respect to the draft, the acceptor is entitled to recover from a warrantor for breach of warranty the amounts stated in this subsection.
(c) Defense.--If a drawee asserts a claim for breach of warranty under subsection (a) based on an unauthorized indorsement of the draft or an alteration of the draft, the warrantor may defend by proving that the indorsement is effective under section 3404 (relating to imposters; fictitious payees) or 3405 (relating to employer's responsibility for fraudulent indorsement by employee) or the drawer is precluded under section 3406 (relating to negligence contributing to forged signature or alteration of instrument) or 4406 (relating to duty of customer to discover and report unauthorized signature or alteration) from asserting against the drawee the unauthorized indorsement or alteration.
(d) Other warranties.--If a dishonored draft is presented for payment to the drawer or an indorser or any other item is presented for payment to a party obliged to pay the item, and the item is paid, the person obtaining payment and a prior transferor of the item warrant to the person making payment in good faith that the warrantor is, or was, at the time the warrantor transferred the item, a person entitled to enforce the item or authorized to obtain payment on behalf of a person entitled to enforce the item. The person making payment may recover from any warrantor for breach of warranty an amount equal to the amount paid plus expenses and loss of interest resulting from the breach.
(e) Prohibition against certain disclaimers and discharge.-- The warranties stated in subsections (a) and (d) cannot be disclaimed with respect to checks. Unless notice of a claim for breach of warranty is given to the warrantor within 30 days after the claimant has reason to know of the breach and the identity of the warrantor, the warrantor is discharged to the extent of any loss caused by the delay in giving notice of the claim.
(f) Cause of action.--A cause of action for breach of warranty under this section accrues when the claimant has reason to know of the breach. (July 9, 1992, P.L.507, No.97, eff. one year)
1992 Amendment. Act 97 added present section 4208 and renumbered former section 4208 to present section 4210.
Cross References. Section 4208 is referred to in sections 4302, 4406 of this title.Section: Previous 4201 4202 4203 4204 4205 4206 4207 4208 4209 4210 4211 4212 4213 4214 4215 Next
Last modified: October 8, 2016