Joshua D. Swanson - Page 3
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II. In General
Section 61(a) provides that gross income means all income
from whatever source derived. Accordingly, citizens of the
United States generally are taxed on income earned outside the
geographical boundaries of the United States unless the income is
specifically excluded from gross income. Specking v.
Commissioner, 117 T.C. 95, 101-102 (2001), affd. sub nom. Haessly
v. Commissioner, 68 Fed. Appx. 44 (9th Cir. 2003), affd. sub nom.
Umbach v. Commissioner, 357 F.3d 1108 (10th Cir. 2003).
Exclusions from income are construed narrowly, and taxpayers must
bring themselves within the clear scope of the exclusion. Id.
III. Section 911
In Arnett v. Commissioner, 126 T.C. 89, 91-96 (2006) (Arnett
I), affd. 473 F.3d 790 (7th Cir. 2007) (Arnett II), we addressed
the arguments made by the parties herein regarding section 911.
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit agreed with our
analysis of section 911 and affirmed our conclusion that
Antarctica is not a “foreign country” pursuant to section 911 and
the regulations thereunder. Arnett v. Commissioner, 473 F.3d at
799. We shall not repeat our analysis from Arnett I herein. We
follow our analysis and holding in Arnett I and the analysis and
holding of the Court of Appeals in Arnett II.3
3 In Arnett v. Commissioner, 126 T.C. 89 (2006), affd. 473
F.3d 790 (7th Cir. 2007), we concluded our Opinion with a
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Last modified: March 27, 2008