Any person who—
(1)(A) organizes (or assists in the organization of)—
(i) a partnership or other entity,
(ii) any investment plan or arrangement, or
(iii) any other plan or arrangement, or
(B) participates (directly or indirectly) in the sale of any interest in an entity or plan or arrangement referred to in subparagraph (A), and
(2) makes or furnishes or causes another person to make or furnish (in connection with such organization or sale)—
(A) a statement with respect to the allowability of any deduction or credit, the excludability of any income, or the securing of any other tax benefit by reason of holding an interest in the entity or participating in the plan or arrangement which the person knows or has reason to know is false or fraudulent as to any material matter, or
(B) a gross valuation overstatement as to any material matter,
shall pay, with respect to each activity described in paragraph (1), a penalty equal to the $1,000 or, if the person establishes that it is lesser, 100 percent of the gross income derived (or to be derived) by such person from such activity. For purposes of the preceding sentence, activities described in paragraph (1)(A) with respect to each entity or arrangement shall be treated as a separate activity and participation in each sale described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be so treated. Notwithstanding the first sentence, if an activity with respect to which a penalty imposed under this subsection involves a statement described in paragraph (2)(A), the amount of the penalty shall be equal to 50 percent of the gross income derived (or to be derived) from such activity by the person on which the penalty is imposed.
For purposes of this section, the term "gross valuation overstatement" means any statement as to the value of any property or services if—
(A) the value so stated exceeds 200 percent of the amount determined to be the correct valuation, and
(B) the value of such property or services is directly related to the amount of any deduction or credit allowable under chapter 1 to any participant.
The Secretary may waive all or any part of the penalty provided by subsection (a) with respect to any gross valuation overstatement on a showing that there was a reasonable basis for the valuation and that such valuation was made in good faith.
The penalty imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty provided by law.
(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §320(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 611; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §143(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 682; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7734(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §818(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1584.)
Last modified: October 26, 2015