Cisneros v. Alpine Ridge Group, 508 U.S. 10, 9 (1993)

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18

CISNEROS v. ALPINE RIDGE GROUP

Opinion of the Court

poses what is labeled an "[o]verall [l]imitation" on the formula-based adjustments provided by 1.9b. It provides that "[n]otwithstanding any other provisions of this Contract, adjustments as provided in this Section shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units, as determined by the Government" (emphasis added). As we have noted previously in construing statutes, the use of such a "notwithstanding" clause clearly signals the drafter's intention that the provisions of the "notwithstanding" section override conflicting provisions of any other section. See Shomberg v. United States, 348 U. S. 540, 547-548 (1955). Likewise, the Courts of Appeals generally have "interpreted similar 'notwithstanding' language . . . to supersede all other laws, stating that ' "[a] clearer statement is difficult to imagine." ' " Liberty Maritime Corp. v. United States, 289 U. S. App. D. C. 1, 4, 928 F. 2d 413, 416 (1991) (quoting Crowley Caribbean Transport, Inc. v. United States, 275 U. S. App. D. C. 182, 184, 865 F. 2d 1281, 1283 (1989) (in turn quoting Illinois National Guard v. FLRA, 272 U. S. App. D. C. 187, 194, 854 F. 2d 1396, 1403 (1988))); see also Bank of New England Old Colony, N. A. v. Clark, 986 F. 2d 600, 604 (CA1 1993); Dean v. Veterans Admin. Regional Office, 943 F. 2d 667, 670 (CA6 1991), vacated and remanded on other grounds, 503 U. S. 902 (1992); In re FCX, Inc., 853 F. 2d 1149, 1154 (CA4 1988), cert. denied sub nom. Universal Cooperatives, Inc. v. FCX, Inc., 489 U. S. 1011 (1989); Multi-State Communications, Inc. v. FCC, 234 U. S. App. D. C. 285, 291, 728 F. 2d 1519, 1525, cert. denied, 469 U. S. 1017 (1984); New Jersey Air National Guard v. FLRA, 677 F. 2d 276, 283 (CA3), cert. denied sub nom. Government Employees v. New Jersey Air National Guard, 459 U. S. 988 (1982). Thus, we think it clear beyond peradventure that 1.9d provides that contract rents "shall not" be adjusted so as to exceed materially the rents charged for "comparable unassisted units" on the private rental market—even if other provisions of the contracts might seem to

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