Key Tronic Corp. v. United States, 511 U.S. 809, 12 (1994)

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Opinion of the Court

to a lawyer are unrecoverable expenses under CERCLA. On the contrary, some lawyers' work that is closely tied to the actual cleanup may constitute a necessary cost of response in and of itself under the terms of 107(a)(4)(B). The component of Key Tronic's claim that covers the work performed in identifying other PRP's falls in this category. Unlike the litigation services at issue in Alyeska, these efforts might well be performed by engineers, chemists, private investigators, or other professionals who are not lawyers. As the Tenth Circuit observed, the American rule set out in Alyeska does not govern such fees "because they are not incurred in pursuing litigation." FMC Corp. v. Aero Industries, Inc., 998 F. 2d 842, 847 (1993).

The District Court in this case recognized the role Key Tronic's search for other responsible parties played in uncovering the Air Force's disposal of wastes at the site and in prompting the EPA to initiate its enforcement action against the Air Force. 766 F. Supp., at 872, n. 4. Tracking down other responsible solvent polluters increases the probability that a cleanup will be effective and get paid for. Key Tronic is therefore quite right to claim that such efforts significantly benefited the entire cleanup effort and served a statutory purpose apart from the reallocation of costs. These kinds of activities are recoverable costs of response clearly distinguishable from litigation expenses.14

This reasoning does not extend, however, to the legal services performed in connection with the negotiations between Key Tronic and the EPA that culminated in the consent decree. Studies that Key Tronic's counsel prepared or supervised during those negotiations may indeed have aided the EPA and may also have affected the ultimate scope and form of the cleanup. We nevertheless view such work as primarily protecting Key Tronic's interests as a defendant in the proceedings that established the extent of its liability. As

14 As is customary in assessments of this sort, of course, trial courts will determine the exact amount of these costs that is recoverable.

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