Cooper v. Oklahoma, 517 U.S. 348, 14 (1996)

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Cite as: 517 U. S. 348 (1996)

Opinion of the Court

maining 46 jurisdictions imposes such a heavy burden on the defendant.17 Indeed, a number of States place no burden on the defendant at all, but rather require the prosecutor to

by Oklahoma and Connecticut may have been a response to this Court's decision in Addington v. Texas, 441 U. S. 418 (1979). We discuss Adding-ton infra, at 368-369.

17 See Lackey v. State, 615 So. 2d 145, 151-152 (Ala. Crim. App. 1992); McCarlo v. State, 677 P. 2d 1268, 1272 (Alaska App. 1984); Cal. Penal Code Ann. 1369(f) (West 1982); Colo. Rev. Stat. 16-8-111(2) (1986); Diaz v. State, 508 A. 2d 861, 863 (Del. 1986); Flowers v. State, 353 So. 2d 1259, 1270 (Fla. App. 1978); Johnson v. State, 209 Ga. App. 514, 516, 433 S. E. 2d 717, 719 (1993); Haw. Rev. Stat. 704-404 and 704-411 (1993); Ill. Comp. Stat., ch. 725, 5/104-11(c) (1992); Montano v. State, 649 N. E. 2d 1053, 1057-1058 (Ind. App. 1995); State v. Rhode, 503 N. W. 2d 27, 35 (Iowa App. 1993); State v. Seminary, 165 La. 67, 72, 115 So. 370, 372 (1927); Jolley v. State, 282 Md. 353, 365, 384 A. 2d 91, 98 (1978); Commonwealth v. Prater, 420 Mass. 569, 573-574, 651 N. E. 2d 833, 837 (1995); Minn. Rule Crim. Proc. 20.01 (1995); Griffin v. State, 504 So. 2d 186, 191 (Miss. 1987); State v. Zorzy, 136 N. H. 710, 714-715, 622 A. 2d 1217, 1219 (1993); State v. Lambert, 275 N. J. Super. 125, 129, 645 A. 2d 1189, 1191 (1994); State v. Chapman, 104 N. M. 324, 327, 721 P. 2d 392, 395 (1986); People v. Santos, 43 App. Div. 2d 73, 75, 349 N. Y. S. 2d 439, 442 (1973); State v. Heger, 326 N. W. 2d 855, 858 (N. D. 1982); Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 2945.37 (1993); State v. Nance, 466 S. E. 2d 349, 351 (S. C. 1996); S. D. Codified Laws 23A-10A-6.1 (1988); Jordan v. State, 124 Tenn. 81, 89, 135 S. W. 327, 329 (1911); Blacklock v. State, 820 S. W. 2d 882, 886 (Tex. App. 1991); Utah Code Ann. 77-15-5(10) (1995); Va. Code Ann. 19.2-169.1(E) (1995); Wash. Rev. Code 10.77.090 (1994); W. Va. Code 27-6A-2(b) (1992); Wis. Stat. 971.14(4)(b) (1985 and Supp. 1995); Loomer v. State, 768 P. 2d 1042, 1045 (Wyo. 1989).

The burden imposed in the remaining States is unclear. Nothing in the competency statutes or case law of these States suggests, however, that the defendant bears the burden of proving incompetence by clear and convincing evidence. See Ariz. Rule Crim. Proc. 11.5 (1987 and Supp. 1995); Mitchell v. State, 323 Ark. 116, 120, 913 S. W. 2d 264, 266 (1996); Idaho Code 18-212 (1987); Kan. Stat. Ann. 22-3302 (1995); Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. 504.100 (Michie 1990); Me. Rev. Stat. Ann., Tit. 15, 101-B (Supp. 1995); Mich. Comp. Laws 330.2020 (1992); State v. Clark, 546 S. W. 2d 455, 468 (Mo. App. 1976); Mont. Code Ann. 46-14-221 (1992 and Supp. 1995); Neb. Rev. Stat. 29-1823 (1989); Nev. Rev. Stat. 178.415 (1992); N. C. Gen. Stat. 15A-1002 (1988); Ore. Rev. Stat. 161.360-161.370 (Supp. 1994); and Vt. Stat. Ann., Tit. 13, 4817 (1974).

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