BMW of North America, Inc. v. Gore, 517 U.S. 559, 11 (1996)

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Cite as: 517 U. S. 559 (1996)

Opinion of the Court

mobile distributors to disclose presale repairs that affect the value of a new car. But the States need not, and in fact do not, provide such protection in a uniform manner. Some States rely on the judicial process to formulate and enforce an appropriate disclosure requirement by applying principles of contract and tort law.12 Other States have enacted various forms of legislation that define the disclosure obligations of automobile manufacturers, distributors, and dealers.13

12 See, e. g., Rivers v. BMW of North America, Inc., 214 Ga. App. 880, 449 S. E. 2d 337 (1994) (nondisclosure of presale paint repairs that occurred before state disclosure statute enacted); Wedmore v. Jordan Motors, Inc., 589 N. E. 2d 1180 (Ind. App. 1992) (same).

13 Four States require disclosure of vehicle repairs costing more than 3 percent of suggested retail price. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 28-1304.03 (1989); N. C. Gen. Stat. 20-305.1(d)(5a) (1995); S. C. Code 56-32-20 (Supp. 1995); Va. Code Ann. 46.2-1571(D) (Supp. 1995). An additional three States mandate disclosure when the cost of repairs exceeds 3 percent or $500, whichever is greater. Ala. Code 8-19-5(22)(c) (1993); Cal. Veh. Code Ann. 9990-9991 (West Supp. 1996); Okla. Stat., Tit. 47, 1112.1 (1991). Indiana imposes a 4 percent disclosure threshold. Ind. Code 9-23-4-4, 9-23-4-5 (1993). Minnesota requires disclosure of repairs costing more than 4 percent of suggested retail price or $500, whichever is greater. Minn. Stat. 325F.664 (1994). New York requires disclosure when the cost of repairs exceeds 5 percent of suggested retail price. N. Y. Gen. Bus. Law 396-p(5)(a), (d) (McKinney Supp. 1996). Vermont imposes a 5 percent disclosure threshold for the first $10,000 in repair costs and 2 percent thereafter. Vt. Stat. Ann., Tit. 9, 4087(d) (1993). Eleven States mandate disclosure only of damage costing more than 6 percent of retail value to repair. Ark. Code Ann. 23-112-705 (1992); Idaho Code 49-1624 (1994); Ill. Comp. Stat., ch. 815, 710/5 (1994); Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. 190.0491(5) (Baldwin 1988); La. Rev. Stat. Ann. 32:1260 (West Supp. 1995); Miss. Motor Vehicle Comm'n, Regulation No. 1 (1992); N. H. Rev. Stat. Ann. 357-C:5(III)(d) (1995); Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 4517.61 (1994); R. I. Gen. Laws 31-5.1-18(d), (f) (1995); Wis. Stat. 218.01(2d)(a) (1994); Wyo. Stat. 31-16-115 (1994). Two States require disclosure of repairs costing $3,000 or more. See Iowa Code Ann. 321.69 (Supp. 1996); N. D. Admin. Code 37-09-01-01 (1992). Georgia mandates disclosure of paint damage that costs more than $500 to repair. Ga. Code Ann. 40-1- 5(b)-(e) (1994) (enacted after respondent purchased his car). Florida re-

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