BE&K Constr. Co. v. NLRB, 536 U.S. 516, 7 (2002)

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Opinion of the Court

petitioner's claim, if proved, could overcome the unions' antitrust immunity, but rejected it nonetheless because "fifteen of the twenty-nine [actions filed by the unions] . . . have proven successful. The fact that more than half of all the actions . . . turn out to have merit cannot be reconciled with the charge that the unions were filing [them] willy-nilly without regard to success." Id., at 811 (footnote omitted).

The Ninth Circuit reversed the District Court's award of Rule 11 sanctions, however, after petitioner explained that it had realleged decided claims based on Circuit precedent suggesting that doing so was necessary to preserve them on appeal. Ibid. Although the Ninth Circuit decided that rule did not apply to amended complaints following summary judgment, it held that petitioner's view was not frivolous and that its counsel could not be blamed for "err[ing] on the side of caution." Id., at 812.

In the meantime, two unions had lodged complaints against petitioner with the National Labor Relations Board (Board), 246 F. 3d, at 624, and after the federal proceedings ended, the Board's general counsel issued an administrative complaint against petitioner, alleging that it had violated 8(a)(1) of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), 49 Stat. 452, as amended, 29 U. S. C. 158(a)(1), by filing and maintaining the federal lawsuit. App. to Pet. for Cert. 29a. Section 8(a)(1) prohibits employers from restraining, coercing, or interfering with employees' exercise of rights related to self-organization, collective bargaining, and other concerted activities. 29 U. S. C. 157, 158(a)(1).

A three-member panel of the Board addressed cross-motions for summary judgment and ruled in favor of the general counsel. The panel determined that petitioner's federal lawsuit had been unmeritorious because all of petitioner's claims were dismissed or voluntarily withdrawn with preju-dice. App. to Pet. for Cert. 30a, 47a, 49a. The panel then examined whether petitioner's suit had been filed to retaliate against the unions for engaging in activities protected under

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