Stevens, J., dissenting
person who obtains the property (United States v. Green, 350 U. S. 415 (1956)).
"Obviously, Caron had a right to solicit business from anyone in any area without any territorial restrictions by the appellants and only by the exercise of such a right could Caron obtain customers whose accounts were admittedly valuable. . . . The right to pursue a lawful business including the solicitation of customers necessary to the conduct of such business has long been recognized as a property right within the protection of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution (Louis K. Ligget Co. v. Baldridge, 278 U. S. 105 (1928); cf., Duplex Printing Press Co. v. Deering, 254 U. S. 443, 465 (1921) . . . . Caron's right to solicit accounts in Milford, Connecticut constituted property within the Hobbs Act definition." Id., at 1075-1076 (some citations omitted).
The Tropiano case's discussion of obtaining property has been cited with approval by federal courts in virtually every circuit in the country. See, e. g., United States v. Hathaway, 534 F. 2d 386, 396 (CA1 1976); United States v. Arena, 180 F. 3d 380, 392 (CA2 1999); Northeast Women's Center, Inc. v. McMonagle, 868 F. 2d 1342, 1350 (CA3 1989); United States v. Santoni, 585 F. 2d 667, 673 (CA4 1978); United States v. Nadaline, 471 F. 2d 340, 344 (CA5 1973); United States v. Debs, 949 F. 2d 199, 201 (CA6 1991); United States v. Lewis, 797 F. 2d 358, 364 (CA7 1986); United States v. Zemek, 634 F. 2d 1159, 1174 (CA9 1980).1 Its interpretation
1 Indeed, the Ninth Circuit's discussion of the nature of property under the Hobbs Act illustrates just how settled this issue was in the Courts of Appeals: "The concept of property under the Hobbs Act has not been limited to physical or tangible 'things.' The right to make business decisions and to solicit business free from wrongful coercion is a protected property right. See, e. g., United States v. Santoni, 585 F. 2d 667 (4th Cir. 1978) (right to make business decisions free from outside pressure wrongfully imposed); United States v. Nadaline, 471 F. 2d 340 (5th Cir.) (right toPage: Index Previous 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next
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