Virginia v. Hicks, 539 U.S. 113, 10 (2003)

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Opinion of the Court

cided that they are not—that all components of the RRHA trespass policy must stand or fall together. It could not properly decree that they fall by reason of the overbreadth doctrine, however, unless the trespass policy, taken as a whole, is substantially overbroad judged in relation to its plainly legitimate sweep.3 See Broadrick, 413 U. S., at 615. The overbreadth claimant bears the burden of demonstrating, "from the text of [the law] and from actual fact," that substantial overbreadth exists. New York State Club Assn., Inc. v. City of New York, 487 U. S. 1, 14 (1988).

Hicks has not made such a showing with regard to the RRHA policy taken as a whole—even assuming, arguendo, the unlawfulness of the policy's "unwritten" rule that demonstrating and leafleting at Whitcomb Court require permission from Gloria Rogers. Consider the "no-return" notice served on nonresidents who have no "legitimate business or social purpose" in Whitcomb Court: Hicks has failed to demonstrate that this notice would even be given to anyone engaged in constitutionally protected speech. Gloria Rogers testified that leafleting and demonstrations are permitted at Whitcomb Court, so long as permission is obtained in advance. App. to Pet. for Cert. 100-102. Thus, "legitimate business or social purpose" evidently includes leafleting and demonstrating; otherwise, Rogers would lack authority to permit those activities on RRHA property. Hicks has failed to demonstrate that any First Amendment activity falls outside the "legitimate business or social purpose[s]" that permit entry. As far as appears, until one receives a barment

3 Contrary to Justice Souter's suggestion, post, at 124 (concurring opinion), the Supreme Court of Virginia did not focus solely on the "un-written" element of the RRHA trespass policy "[i]n comparing invalid applications against valid ones for purposes of the First Amendment over-breadth doctrine." The fact is that its opinion contains no "comparing" of valid and invalid applications whatever; the proportionality aspect of our overbreadth doctrine is simply ignored. Since, however, the Virginia Supreme Court struck down the entire RRHA trespass policy, the question presented here is whether the entire policy is substantially overbroad.

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