Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244, 17 (2003)

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Opinion of the Court

well, despite the fact that the Court of Appeals had not yet rendered a judgment, so that this Court could address the constitutionality of the consideration of race in university admissions in a wider range of circumstances. We did so. See 537 U. S. 1044 (2002).


As they have throughout the course of this litigation, petitioners contend that the University's consideration of race in its undergraduate admissions decisions violates 1 of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment,11

Title VI,12 and 42 U. S. C. 1981.13 We consider first whether petitioners have standing to seek declaratory and injunctive relief, and, finding that they do, we next consider the merits of their claims.


Although no party has raised the issue, Justice Stevens argues that petitioners lack Article III standing to seek injunctive relief with respect to the University's use of race in undergraduate admissions. He first contends that because Hamacher did not "actually appl[y] for admission as a transfer student[,] [h]is claim of future injury is at best 'conjectural or hypothetical' rather than 'real and immediate.' " Post, at 285 (dissenting opinion). But whether Hamacher "actually applied" for admission as a transfer student is not

11 The Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment explains that "[n]o State shall . . . deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."

12 Title VI provides that "[n]o person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." 42 U. S. C. 2000d.

13 Section 1981(a) provides: "All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, . . . and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens."

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