Cite as: 539 U. S. 59 (2003)
Opinion of the Court
a claim, and it rejected the individual petitioners' claims because the California laws "do not, on their face, create classifications based on any individual's residency or citizenship." 259 F. 3d, at 1156. Petitioners do not challenge the first holding, but they contend that the second is inconsistent with our decision in Chalker v. Birmingham & Northwestern R. Co., 249 U. S. 522 (1919). We agree.
In Chalker, we held that a Tennessee tax imposed on a citizen and resident of Alabama for engaging in the business of constructing a railroad in Tennessee violated the Privileges and Immunities Clause. The tax did not on its face draw any distinction based on citizenship or residence. It did, however, impose a higher rate on persons who had their principal offices out of State. Taking judicial notice of the fact that "the chief office of an individual is commonly in the State of which he is a citizen," we concluded that the practical effect of the provision was discriminatory. Id., at 527. Whether Chalker should be interpreted as merely applying the Clause to classifications that are but proxies for differential treatment against out-of-state residents, or as prohibiting any classification with the practical effect of discriminating against such residents, is a matter we need not decide at this stage of these cases. Under either interpretation, we agree with petitioners that the absence of an express statement in the California laws and regulations identifying outof-state citizenship as a basis for disparate treatment is not a sufficient basis for rejecting this claim. In so holding, however, we express no opinion on the merits of petitioners' Privileges and Immunities Clause claim.
* * *
The judgment of the Court of Appeals is vacated, and these cases are remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.
It is so ordered.
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