Ex parte MCCAULEY et al. - Page 4

          Appeal No. 97-0759                                                          
          Application 08/155,564                                                      

          structure with a contact stem protruding therefrom, because both            
          Karl and Hagberg are in the same field of endeavor.                         
               We disagree.  Not everything in the same field of endeavor             
          can be interchanged at will.  If that were the case, then as long           
          as the prior art references were in the same field of endeavor,             
          we could selectively pick and choose elements from one and place            
          them arbitrarily anywhere in the other without regard to any                
          motivation or reasonable suggestion to do so, which is improper.            
          Here, the most one with ordinary skill in the art would glean               
          from Hagberg is that the head structure 9 might be replaced by              
          the partly spherical, partly frustoconical structure of Karl.  We           
          can see no motivation whatsoever for one with ordinary skill in             
          the art to add Hagberg's contact stem to Karl.                              
               In Hagberg, the contact stem as referred to by the examiner            
          is evidently the control pin 45 which has a slightly reduced                
          diameter at one end known as the rounded nib 47.  The purpose of            
          the control pin and nib is to make selective contact with the               
          movable blades of the lever arrangement below (Figures 2-4) to              
          move them for causing electrical contact to be made or broken               
          between contact terminals.  In Karl, the corresponding electrical           
          connection function is performed by a contact element 17 attached           
          to seat 10 on the opposite end of head structure 9 (see Figures 1           


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