§ 2A309. Lessor's and lessee's rights when goods become
(a) Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection: "Construction mortgage." A mortgage is a construction mortgage to the extent it secures an obligation incurred for the construction of an improvement on land, including the acquisition cost of the land, if the recorded writing so indicates. "Encumbrance." Includes real estate mortgages and other liens on real estate and all other rights in real estate that are not ownership interests. "Fixture filing." The filing, in the office where a record of a mortgage on the real estate would be filed or recorded, of a financing statement covering goods that are or are to become fixtures and conforming to the requirements of section 9502(a) and (b) (relating to contents of financing statement; record of mortgage as financing statement; time of filing financing statement). "Fixtures." Goods are fixtures when they become so related to particular real estate that an interest in them arises under real estate law. "Purchase money lease." A lease is a purchase money lease unless the lessee has possession or use of the goods or the right to possession or use of the goods before the lease agreement is enforceable.
(b) Lease of goods that are fixtures.--Under this division, a lease may be of goods that are fixtures or may continue in goods that become fixtures, but no lease exists under this division of ordinary building materials incorporated into an improvement on land.
(c) Lease under real estate law.--This division does not prevent creation of a lease of fixtures pursuant to real estate law.
(d) Priority of perfected interest of lessor of fixtures.-- The perfected interest of a lessor of fixtures has priority over a conflicting interest of an encumbrancer or owner of the real estate if:
(1) the lease is a purchase money lease, the conflicting interest of the encumbrancer or owner arises before the goods become fixtures, the interest of the lessor is perfected by a fixture filing before the goods become fixtures or within ten days thereafter, and the lessee has an interest of record in the real estate or is in possession of the real estate; or
(2) the interest of the lessor is perfected by a fixture filing before the interest of the encumbrancer or owner is of record, the lessor's interest has priority over any conflicting interest of a predecessor in title of the encumbrancer or owner, and the lessee has an interest of record in the real estate or is in possession of the real estate.
(e) Priority of interest of lessor of fixtures whether or not perfected.--The interest of a lessor of fixtures, whether or not perfected, has priority over the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer or owner of the real estate if:
(1) the fixtures are readily removable factory or office machines, readily removable equipment that is not primarily used or leased for use in the operation of the real estate, or readily removable replacements of domestic appliances that are goods subject to a consumer lease, and before the goods become fixtures the lease contract is enforceable;
(2) the conflicting interest is a lien on the real estate obtained by legal or equitable proceedings after the lease contract is enforceable;
(3) the encumbrancer or owner has consented in writing to the lease or has disclaimed an interest in the goods as fixtures; or
(4) the lessee has a right to remove the goods as against the encumbrancer or owner. If the lessee's right to remove terminates, the priority of the interest of the lessor continues for a reasonable time.
(f) Subordination to construction mortgage.--Notwithstanding subsection (d)(1) but otherwise subject to subsections (d) and (e), the interest of a lessor of fixtures, including the lessor's residual interest, is subordinate to the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer of the real estate under a construction mortgage recorded before the goods become fixtures if the goods become fixtures before the completion of the construction. To the extent given to refinance a construction mortgage, the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer of the real estate under a mortgage has this priority to the same extent as the encumbrancer of the real estate under the construction mortgage.
(g) Priority of interest in other cases.--In cases not within the preceding subsections, priority between the interest of a lessor of fixtures, including the lessor's residual interest, and the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer or owner of the real estate who is not the lessee is determined by the priority rules governing conflicting interests in real estate.
(h) Removal of goods if interest of lessor has priority.--If the interest of a lessor of fixtures, including the lessor's residual interest, has priority over all conflicting interests of all owners and encumbrancers of the real estate, the lessor or the lessee may:
(1) on default, expiration, termination or cancellation of the lease agreement but subject to the lease agreement and this division; or
(2) if necessary to enforce other rights and remedies of the lessor or lessee under this division; remove the goods from the real estate, free and clear of all conflicting interests of all owners and encumbrancers of the real estate, but the lessor or lessee must reimburse any encumbrancer or owner of the real estate who is not the lessee and who has not otherwise agreed for the cost of repair of any physical injury, but not for any diminution in value of the real estate caused by the absence of the goods removed or by any necessity of replacing them. A person entitled to reimbursement may refuse permission to remove until the party seeking removal gives adequate security for the performance of this obligation.
(i) Perfection of interest of lessor.--Even though the lease agreement does not create a security interest, the interest of a lessor of fixtures, including the lessor's residual interest, is perfected by filing a financing statement as a fixture filing for leased goods that are or are to become fixtures in accordance with the relevant provisions of Division 9 (relating to secured transactions). (June 8, 2001, P.L.123, No.18, eff. July 1, 2001)
2001 Amendment. Act 18 amended subsec. (a).
Cross References. Section 2A309 is referred to in section 2A103 of this title.Section: Previous 2a301 2a302 2a303 2a304 2a305 2a306 2a307 2a308 2a309 2a310 2a311 Next
Last modified: October 8, 2016