§ 2543. Controlling person or group.
(a) General rule.--For the purpose of this subchapter, a "controlling person or group" means a person who has, or a group of persons acting in concert that has, voting power over voting shares of the registered corporation that would entitle the holders thereof to cast at least 20% of the votes that all shareholders would be entitled to cast in an election of directors of the corporation.
(b) Exceptions generally.--Notwithstanding subsection (a):
(1) A person or group which would otherwise be a controlling person or group within the meaning of this section shall not be deemed a controlling person or group unless, subsequent to the later of March 23, 1988, or the date this subchapter becomes applicable to a corporation by bylaw or article amendment or otherwise, that person or group increases the percentage of outstanding voting shares of the corporation over which it has voting power to in excess of the percentage of outstanding voting shares of the corporation over which that person or group had voting power on such later date, and to at least the amount specified in subsection (a), as the result of forming or enlarging a group or acquiring, by purchase, voting power over voting shares of the corporation.
(2) No person or group shall be deemed to be a controlling person or group at any particular time if voting power over any of the following voting shares is required to be counted at such time in order to meet the 20% minimum:
(i) Shares which have been held continuously by a natural person since January 1, 1983, and which are held by such natural person at such time.
(ii) Shares which are held at such time by any natural person or trust, estate, foundation or other similar entity to the extent the shares were acquired solely by gift, inheritance, bequest, devise or other testamentary distribution or series of these transactions, directly or indirectly, from a natural person who had acquired the shares prior to January 1, 1983.
(iii) Shares which were acquired pursuant to a stock split, stock dividend, reclassification or similar recapitalization with respect to shares described under this paragraph that have been held continuously since their issuance by the corporation by the natural person or entity that acquired them from the corporation or that were acquired, directly or indirectly, from such natural person or entity, solely pursuant to a transaction or series of transactions described in subparagraph (ii), and that are held at such time by a natural person or entity described in subparagraph (ii).
(iv) Control shares as defined in section 2562 (relating to definitions) which have not yet been accorded voting rights pursuant to section 2564(a) (relating to voting rights of shares acquired in a control-share acquisition).
(v) Shares, the voting rights of which are attributable to a person under subsection (d) if:
(A) the person acquired the option or conversion right directly from or made the contract, arrangement or understanding or has the relationship directly with the corporation; and
(B) the person does not at the particular time own or otherwise effectively possess the voting rights of the shares.
(vi) Shares acquired directly from the corporation or an affiliate or associate, as defined in section 2552 (relating to definitions), of the corporation by a person engaged in business as an underwriter of securities who acquires the shares through his participation in good faith in a firm commitment underwriting registered under the Securities Act of 1933.
(vii) Shares acquired directly from the corporation in a transaction exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933.
(3) In determining whether a person or group is or would be a controlling person or group at any particular time, there shall be disregarded voting power arising from a contingent right of the holders of one or more classes or series of preference shares to elect one or more members of the board of directors upon or during the continuation of a default in the payment of dividends on such shares or another similar contingency.
(c) Certain record holders.--A person shall not be a controlling person under subsection (a) if the person holds voting power, in good faith and not for the purpose of circumventing this subchapter, as an agent, bank, broker, nominee or trustee for one or more beneficial owners who do not individually or, if they are a group acting in concert, as a group have the voting power specified in subsection (a), or who are not deemed a controlling person or group under subsection (b).
(d) Existence of voting power.--For the purposes of this subchapter, a person has voting power over a voting share if the person has or shares, directly or indirectly, through any option, contract, arrangement, understanding, conversion right or relationship, or by acting jointly or in concert or otherwise, the power to vote, or to direct the voting of, the voting share.
(Dec. 19, 1990, P.L.834, No.198, eff. imd.; Feb. 10, 2006, P.L.21, No.6, eff. imd.)
2006 Amendment. Act 6 added subsec. (b)(2)(vii).
1990 Amendment. Act 198 amended subsecs. (a) and (b).
Cross References. Section 2543 is referred to in sections 1106, 2542 of this title.Section: Previous 2535 2536 2537 2538 2539 2541 2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2551 2552 Next
Last modified: October 8, 2016