Food and Commercial Workers v. Brown Group, Inc., 517 U.S. 544, 10 (1996)

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Cite as: 517 U. S. 544 (1996)

Opinion of the Court

State apple grades on apple containers. Relying on Warth, the Hunt Court stated a three-prong associational standing test:

"[W]e have recognized that an association has standing to bring suit on behalf of its members when: (a) its members would otherwise have standing to sue in their own right; (b) the interests it seeks to protect are germane to the organization's purpose; and (c) neither the claim asserted nor the relief requested requires the participation of individual members in the lawsuit." 432 U. S., at 343.

Finally, in Automobile Workers v. Brock, 477 U. S. 274 (1986), we held that a union had standing to challenge an agency's construction of a statute providing benefits to workers who lost their jobs because of competition from imports. The union there did not allege any injury to itself, nor was it argued that the members' associational rights were affected. Reaffirming and applying the three-part test emerging from Warth and Hunt, we held that the union had standing to bring the suit. 477 U. S., at 281-288. See also Pennell v. San Jose, 485 U. S. 1, 7, and n. 3 (1988).


The Court of Appeals here concluded that the union's members would have had standing to sue on their own (the first prong), and recognized that the interests the union sought to protect were germane to its purpose (the second prong). But it denied the union's claim of standing because it found that the relief sought by the union, damages on behalf of its members, would require the participation of individual members in the lawsuit. 50 F. 3d, at 1431. It relied on the statement in Warth that "[i]f in a proper case the association seeks a declaration, injunction, or some other form of prospective relief, it can reasonably be supposed that the remedy, if granted, will inure to the benefit of those


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