Cite as: 536 U. S. 73 (2002)
the threat-to-self defense reasonably falls within the general "job related" and "business necessity" standard does not reduce the "direct threat" language to surplusage. The provision made a conclusion clear that might otherwise have been fought over in litigation or administrative rulemaking. Pp. 84-87.
226 F. 3d 1063, reversed and remanded.
Souter, J., delivered the opinion for a unanimous Court.
Stephen M. Shapiro argued the cause for petitioner. With him on the briefs were James D. Holzhauer, Robert P. Davis, and Evan M. Tager.
Lisa Schiavo Blatt argued the cause for the United States et al. as amici curiae urging reversal. With her on the brief were Solicitor General Olson, Deputy Solicitor General Clement, Assistant Attorney General McCallum, Marleigh D. Dover, Matthew Collette, Phillip B. Sklover, Carolyn L. Wheeler, and Robert J. Gregory.
Samuel R. Bagenstos argued the cause for respondent. With him on the brief were Larry Minsky and Chai R. Feldblum.*
*Briefs of amici curiae urging reversal were filed for the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine et al. by Craig E. Stewart; for the Chamber of Commerce of the United States et al. by Roy T. Englert, Jr., Kathryn S. Zecca, Stephen A. Bokat, and Robin S. Conrad; for the Employers Group by Fred W. Alvarez and Christine A. Kendrick; for the Equal Employment Advisory Council et al. by Ann Elizabeth Reesman, Jan S. Amundson, and Quentin Riegel; for the Pacific Legal Foundation et al. by Anne M. Hayes and M. Reed Hopper; and for the Society for Human Resource Management by Peter J. Petesch and John E. Duvall.
Briefs of amici curiae urging affirmance were filed for the American Association of People with Disabilities et al. by John Townsend Rich, Arlene Mayerson, Daniel B. Kohrman, Ira A. Burnim, and Jennifer Mathis; for the American Civil Liberties Union et al. by Matthew A. Coles, James D. Esseks, Steven R. Shapiro, and Lenora M. Lapidus; for the American Public Health Association et al. by Catherine A. Hanssens and Jon W. Davidson; for the National Council on Disability by Peter Blanck, Diane Kutzko, Mark L. Zaiger, Douglas R. Oelschlaeger, and Sarah J. Gayer; and for the National Employment Lawyers Association by Gary Phelan.
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