Ex parte ZOUGHI et al. - Page 6

          Appeal No. 95-3140                                                          
          Application No. 08/058,453                                                  

          difference magnitude to strength related values for the                     
          concrete being tested (page 14, line 17 to page 15, line 11,                
          and page 16, lines 19-25).  Lastly, a strength related value                
          for the concrete being tested using the difference magnitude                
          and the analysis information is determined (page 15, lines 4-               
          18 and page 16, lines 19-25).                                               
                                  THE PRIOR ART                                       
               The Rzepecka reference discloses that microwaves can be                
          used to test the strength of concrete having known factors or               
          parameters, such as type of mixture and moisture content.                   
          According to the reference, the same parameters affect the                  
          strength of concrete and its dielectric constant or                         
          permittivity.  These parameters include the water to cement                 
          ratio of the cement.  In Fig. 2(b), Rzepecka illustrates                    
          apparatus for measuring the reflection coefficient of a                     
          concrete surface and the actual strength of a concrete sample               
          during its curing process.  That apparatus includes an                      
          oscillator corresponding to appellants' oscillator 24 (Fig.                 
          1), a directional coupler for coupling to a concrete sample                 
          corresponding to appellants' directional                                    


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