Cite as: 536 U. S. 355 (2002)
Opinion of the Court
ence of Blue Cross & Blue Shield Plans v. Travelers Ins. Co., 514 U. S. 645, 656 (1995), occupies a substantial share of this Court's time, see, e. g., Egelhoff v. Egelhoff, 532 U. S. 141 (2001); UNUM Life Ins. Co. of America v. Ward, supra; California Div. of Labor Standards Enforcement v. Dillingham Constr., N. A., Inc., 519 U. S. 316 (1997); Metropolitan Life Ins. Co. v. Massachusetts, 471 U. S. 724 (1985). In trying to extrapolate congressional intent in a case like this, when congressional language seems simultaneously to preempt everything and hardly anything, we "have no choice" but to temper the assumption that " 'the ordinary meaning . . . accurately expresses the legislative purpose,' " id., at 740 (quoting Park 'N Fly v. Dollar Park & Fly, Inc., 469 U. S. 189, 194 (1985)), with the qualification " 'that the historic police powers of the States were not [meant] to be superseded by the Federal Act unless that was the clear and manifest purpose of Congress.' " Travelers, supra, at 655 (quoting Rice v. Santa Fe Elevator Corp., 331 U. S. 218, 230 (1947)).
It is beyond serious dispute that under existing precedent § 4-10 of the Illinois HMO Act "relates to" employee benefit plans within the meaning of § 1144(a). The state law bears "indirectly but substantially on all insured benefit plans," Metropolitan Life, 471 U. S., at 739, by requiring them to submit to an extra layer of review for certain benefit denials if they purchase medical coverage from any of the common types of health care organizations covered by the state law's definition of HMO. As a law that "relates to" ERISA plans under § 1144(a), § 4-10 is saved from preemption only if it also "regulates insurance" under § 1144(b)(2)(A). Rush insists that the Act is not such a law.
In Metropolitan Life, we said that in deciding whether a law "regulates insurance" under ERISA's saving clause, we start with a "common-sense view of the matter," 471 U. S.,
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