Cite as: 536 U. S. 355 (2002)
Opinion of the Court
S. Rep. No. 93-129, at 30. In other words, one year before it passed ERISA, Congress itself defined HMOs in part by reference to risk, set minimum standards for managing the risk, showed awareness that States regulated HMOs as insurers, and compared HMOs to "indemnity or service benefits insurance plans."
This conception has not changed in the intervening years. Since passage of the federal Act, States have been adopting their own HMO enabling Acts, and today, at least 40 of them, including Illinois, regulate HMOs primarily through the States' insurance departments, see Aspen Health Law and Compliance Center, Managed Care Law Manual 31-32 (Supp. 6, Nov. 1997), although they may be treated differently from traditional insurers, owing to their additional role as health care providers,5 see, e. g., Alaska Ins. Code § 21.86.010 (2000) (health department reviews HMO before insurance commissioner grants a certificate of authority); Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 1742.21 (West 1994) (health department may inspect HMO). Finally, this view shared by Congress and the States has passed into common understanding. HMOs (broadly defined) have "grown explosively in the past decade and [are] now the dominant form of health plan coverage for privately insured individuals." Gold & Hurley, The Role of Managed Care "Products" in Managed Care "Plans," in Contemporary Managed Care 47 (M. Gold ed. 1998). While the original form of the HMO was a single corporation employing its own physicians, the 1980's saw a variety of other types of structures develop even as traditional insurers altered their own
5 We have, in a limited number of cases, found certain contracts not to be part of the "business of insurance" under McCarran-Ferguson, notwithstanding their classification as such for the purpose of state regulation. See, e. g., SEC v. Variable Annuity Life Ins. Co. of America, 359 U. S. 65 (1959). Even then, however, we recognized that such classifications are relevant to the enquiry, because Congress, in leaving the "business of insurance" to the States, "was legislating concerning a concept which had taken on its coloration and meaning largely from state law, from state practice, from state usage." Id., at 69.
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