California Civil Code Section 45a

CA Civ Code § 45a (2017)  

A libel which is defamatory of the plaintiff without the necessity of explanatory matter, such as an inducement, innuendo or other extrinsic fact, is said to be a libel on its face. Defamatory language not libelous on its face is not actionable unless the plaintiff alleges and proves that he has suffered special damage as a proximate result thereof. Special damage is defined in Section 48a of this code.

(Added by Stats. 1945, Ch. 1489.)

Last modified: October 8, 2018